Developing an Educational Framework for Using WhatsApp Based on Social Constructivism Theory

  • Noor Al-QaysiEmail author
  • Norhisham Mohamad-Nordin
  • Mostafa Al-Emran
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 295)


Social media applications are one of the promising tools in facilitating the educational process. Among these applications, WhatsApp was recently suggested as one of the most popular applications used by students. However, there is a scarce of a framework that can fully utilize the WhatsApp for educational purposes. To bridge this gap and to draw upon the social constructivism framework, the aim of this study is to develop a social constructivism framework for WhatsApp (SCFW) that enables both formal (in-class) and informal (off-class) learning environment. The SCFW framework is based on the principle that educators can use WhatsApp closed groups to enable learners to construct and share knowledge with their peers. This has been accomplished through the integration of four aspects, including device aspect, social aspect, learner aspect, and teacher aspect.


Educational framework WhatsApp Social constructivism theory 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noor Al-Qaysi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Norhisham Mohamad-Nordin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mostafa Al-Emran
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative IndustryUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia
  2. 2.College of Economics, Management and Information SystemsUniversity of NizwaNizwaOman
  3. 3.Department of Information TechnologyAl Buraimi University CollegeAl BuraimiOman

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