Examining the Acceptance of WhatsApp Stickers Through Machine Learning Algorithms

  • Rana A. Al-MaroofEmail author
  • Ibrahim Arpaci
  • Mostafa Al-Emran
  • Said A. Salloum
  • Khaled Shaalan
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 295)


WhatsApp stickers are gaining popularity among university students due to their pervasiveness, specifically in educational WhatsApp groups. However, the acceptance of stickers by university students is still in short supply. Thus, this research aims to empirically examine the determinants affecting the acceptance of WhatsApp stickers through a proposed theoretical model by integrating the technology acceptance model (TAM) with the uses and gratifications theory (U&G). A questionnaire survey was circulated to collect data from 372 university students who have been engaged in a “Group Talk” in WhatsApp. A novel approach was employed to analyze the hypothesized relationships among the constructs in the research model through the use of machine learning algorithms. The results pointed out that IBk and RandomForest classifiers have performed better than the other classifiers in predicting the actual use of stickers with an accuracy of 78.57%. The research findings are believed to provide future directions for stickers developers to better promote stickers in educational activities.


WhatsApp stickers Technology acceptance model Uses and gratifications theory Machine learning algorithms 



This is an extended version of a conference paper published by the International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Systems and Informatics 2019.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rana A. Al-Maroof
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ibrahim Arpaci
    • 2
  • Mostafa Al-Emran
    • 3
  • Said A. Salloum
    • 4
  • Khaled Shaalan
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of English LanguageAl Buraimi University CollegeAl BuraimiOman
  2. 2.Department of Computer Education and Instructional TechnologyTokat Gaziosmanpasa UniversityTokatTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Information TechnologyAl Buraimi University CollegeAl BuraimiOman
  4. 4.Research Institute of Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of SharjahSharjahUAE
  5. 5.Faculty of Engineering and ITThe British University in DubaiDubaiUAE

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