Non-NPT Nuclear Weapon States

  • Pantelis F. Ikonomou


Countries that have acquired nuclear weapons without currently being members of the NPT are India, Pakistan, North Korea and possibly Israel. North Korea joined the NPT in 1985 but announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003, three years before its first nuclear test.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pantelis F. Ikonomou
    • 1
  1. 1.ViennaAustria

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