Active Structure Control

  • Wen YuEmail author
  • Satyam Paul
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


Historic studies related to earthquakes such as in 1985 Mexico City, 1994 Northridge, 1995 Kobe, 1999 Kocaeli, 2001 Bhuj, 2008 Sichuan, 2008 Chile, and 2012 Emilia expose that earthquakes have caused severe damage in civil structures all over the world.


  1. 1.
    N.R. Fisco, H. Adeli, Smart structures: part I—active and semi-active control. Scientia Iranica 18(3), 275–284 (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.R. Fisco, H. Adeli, Smart structures: part II—hybrid control systems and control strategies. Scientia Iranica 18(3), 285–295 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.T.P. Yao, Concept of structural control. J. Struct. Div. 98(7), 1567–1574 (1972)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.W. Housner, L.A. Bergman, T.K. Caughey, A.G. Chassiakos, R.O. Claus, S.F. Masri, R.E. Skeleton, T.T. Soong, B.F. Spencer Jr., J.T.P. Yao, Structural control: past, present and future. J. Eng. Mech. 123(9), 897–971 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.J. McNamara, Tuned mass dampers for buildings. J. Struct. Div. 103(9), 1785–1798 (1977)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Donaldson, Introduction to Structural Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, UK, 2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Yi, S.J. Dyke, Structural control systems: performance assessment, in American Control Conference, vol. 1, no. 6 (2000), pp. 14–18Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Cruz, S. Cominetti, Three-dimensional buildings subjected to bidirectional earthquakes. Validity of analysis considering unidirectional earthquakes, in 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.S. Heo, S.K. Lee, E. Park, S.H. Lee, K.W. Min, H. Kim, J. Jo, B.H. Cho, Performance test of a tuned liquid mass damper for reducing bidirectional responses of building structures, in The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, vol. 18, no. 7, (2009), pp. 789–805Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Zhang, K. Zeng, J. Jiang, An optimal design of bi-directional TMD for three dimensional structure. Comput. Struct. Eng. 935–941 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.L. Lin, K.C. Tsai, Seismic analysis of two-way asymmetric building systems under bi-directional seismic ground motions. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 37(2), 305–328 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.F. Spencer, S. Nagarajaiah, State of the art of structural control. J. Struct. Eng. 129(7), 845–856 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T.T. Soong, B.F. Spencer, Supplemental energy dissipation: state-of-theart and state-of-the-practice. Eng. Struct. 24(3), 243–259 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.G. Luca, F. Chira, V.O. Rosca, Passive active and semi-active control systems in civil engineering, Constructil Arhitectura 3–4 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.T. Soong, Active Structural Control: Theory and Practice (Addison-Wesley Pub, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.C. Constantinou, M.D. Symans, Seismic response of structures with supplemental damping, in The Structural Design of Tall Buildings, vol. 22, no. 2 (1993), pp. 77–92Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.K. Datta, A state-of-the-art review on active control of structures. ISET J. Earthq. Technol. 40(1), 1–17 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.P. Hartog, Mechanical Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.B. Desu, S.K. Deb, A. Dutta, Coupled tuned mass dampers for control of coupled vibrations in asymmetric buildings, in Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 13, no. 5 (2006), pp. 897–916Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Xu, T. Igusa, Dynamic characteristics of multiple substructures with closely spaced frequencies. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 21(12), 1059–1070 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Elias, V. Matsagar, Research developments in vibration control of structures using passive tuned mass dampers. Ann. Rev. Control 44, 129–156 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.-N. Li, L.-S. Huo, Seismic response reduction of eccentric structures using tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), in Vibration Analysis and Control—New Trends and Development (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.J. Hochrainer, C. Adam, F. Ziegler, Application of tuned liquid column dampers for passive structural control, in 7th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV 7), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.G. Liang, Experiment study of torsionally structural vibration control using circular tuned liquid column dampers. Spec Struct. 13(3), 33–35 (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Fu, Application of torsional tuned liquid column gas damper for plan-asymmetric buildings, in Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 18, no. 5 (2011), pp. 492–509Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Yanik, J.P. Pinelli, H. Gutierrez, Control of a three-dimensional structure with magneto-rheological dampers, in 11th International Conference on Vibration Problems, ed by Z. Dimitrovová et al., Lisbon, Portugal (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Azimi, H. Pan, M. Abdeddaim, Z. Lin, Optimal design, of active tuned mass dampers for mitigating translational-torsional motion of irregular buildings, in Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Structures (EVACES), ed by J. Conte, R. Astroza, G. Benzoni, G. Feltrin, K. Loh, B. Moaveni. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol. 5 (Springer, Cham, 2017), p. 2018Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.R. Jolly, J.W. Bender, J.D. Carlson, Properties and applications of commercial magnetorheological fluids, in Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Passive Damping and Isolation, vol. 3327 (1998), pp. 262–275Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    F. Yi, S.J. Dyke, J.M. Caicedo, J.D. Carlsonf, Experimental verification of multi-input seismic control strategies for smart dampers. J. Eng. Mech. 127(11), 1152–1164 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.S. Ahlawat, A. Ramaswamy, Multiobjective optimal FLC driven hybrid mass damper system for torsionally coupled, seismically excited structures. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 31(12), 2121–2139 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Kim, H. Adeli, Hybrid control of irregular steel highrise building structures under seismic excitations. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 63(12), 1757–1774 (2005)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.M. Angeles-Cervantes, L. Alvarez-Icaza, 3D Identification of buildings seismically excited, in 16th IFAC World Congress, vol. 16, Czech Republic (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Gattulli, M. Lepidi, F. Potenza, Seismic protection of frame structures via semi-active control: modeling and implementation issues. Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vibr. 8(4), 645–672 (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.L. Lin, K.C. Tsai, Y.J. Yu, Bi-directional coupled tuned mass dampers for the seismic response control of two-way asymmetric-plan buildings. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 40(6), 675–690 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Zhao, H. Gao, Torsional vibration control of high-rise building with large local space by using tuned mass damper. Adv. Materi. Res. 446–449, 3066–3071 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.P. Singh, S. Singh, L.M. Moreschi, Tuned mass dampers for response control of torsional buildings. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 31(4), 749–769 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Tang, Active control of SDF systems using artificial neural networks. Comput. Struct. 60(5), 695–703 (1996)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Alkhatib, M.F. Golnaraghi, Active structural vibration control: a review, in The Shock and Vibration Digest, vol. 35, no. 5 (2003), pp. 367–383Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.D. Symans, M.C. Constantinou, Semi-active control of earthquake induced vibration, in World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (1996)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.K. Agrawal, J.N. Yang, Compensation of time-delay for control of civil engineering structures. J. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 29(1), 37–62 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Amini, M.R. Tavassoli, Optimal structural active control force, number and placement of controllers. Eng. Struct. 27(9), 1306–1316 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O.I. Obe, Optimal actuators placements for the active control of flexible structures. J. Math. Analy. Appl. 105(1), 12–25 (1985)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    W. Gawronski, Actuator and sensor placement for structural testing and control. J. Sound Vibr. 208(1), 101–109 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.M. Angeles-Cervantes, L. Alvarez-Icaza, 3D Identification of buildings seismically excited, in 16th IFAC World Congress, vol. 16, Czech Republic (2005)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. Wu, J.P. Ou, T.T. Soong, Optimal placement of energy dissipation devices for three-dimensional structures. Eng. Struct. 19(2), 113–125 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Guclu, Sliding mode and PID control of a structural system against earthquake. Math. Comput. Modell. 44(1–2), 210–217 (2006)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    I.J. Vial, J.C. de la Llera, J.L. Almazan, V. Ceballos, Torsional balance of plan-asymmetric structures with frictional dampers: experimental results. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 35(15), 1875–1898 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O. Yoshida, S.J. Dyke, L.M. Giacosa, K.Z. Truman, Experimental verification on torsional response control of asymmetric buildings using MR dampers. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 32(13), 2085–2105 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    C.-M. Chang, B.F. Spencer Jr., P. Shi, Multiaxial active isolation for seismic protection of buildings, in Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 21 (2014), pp.484–502Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Adeli, A. Saleh, Optimal control of adaptive/smart bridge structures. J. Struct. Eng. 123(2), 218 –226 (1997)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R.E. Christenson, B.F. Spencer Jr., N. Hori, K. Seto, Coupled building control using acceleration feedback, in Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, vol. 18, no. 1 (2003), pp. 4–18Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Du, Z. Lin, Sequential optimal control for serially connected isolated structures subject to two-directional horizontal earthquake, in Control and Automation (ICCA), Xiamen (2010), pp. 1508–1511Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    V.I. Utkin, Sliding Modes in Control and Optimization (Springer, Berlin, 1992)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    T. Fujinami, Y. Saito, M. Morishita, Y. Koike, K. Tanida, A hybrid mass damper system controlled by H\(^{_{\infty }}\) control theory for reducing bending—torsion vibration of an actual building. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 30(11), 1639–1653 (2001)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Z. Li, S. Wang, Robust optimal H\(^{_{\infty }}\) control for irregular buildings with AMD via LMI approach, in Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, vol. 19, no. 2 (2014), pp. 256–271Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.C. Lin, C.C. Chang, J.F. Wang, Active control of irregular buildings considering soil–structure interaction effects, in Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 30, no. 3 (2010), pp. 98–109Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T.H. Nguyen, N.M. Kwok, Q.P. Ha, J. Li, B. Samali, Adaptive sliding mode control for civil structures using magnetorheological dampers, in International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (2006)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Iwamoto, K. Yuji, K. Nonami, K. Tanida, I. Iwasaki, Output feedback sliding mode control for bending and torsional vibration control of 6-story flexible structure. JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45(1), 150–158 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Ghaboussi, A. Joghataie, Active control of structures using neural networks. J. Eng. Mech. 121(4), 555–567 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    X. Jiang, H. Adeli, Pseudospectra, MUSIC, and dynamic wavelet neural network for damage detection of highrise buildings. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 71(5), 606–629 (2007)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    K. Bani-Hani, J. Ghaboussi, Nonlinear structural control using neural networks. J. Eng. Mech. 24(3), 319–327 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J.T. Kim, H.J. Jung, I.W. Lee, Optimal structural control using neural networks. J. Eng. Mech. 126(2), 201–205 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. Suresh, S. Narasimhan, S. Nagarajaiah, Direct adaptive neural controller for the active control of nonlinear base-isolated buildings, in Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 19, no. 3 (2011), pp. 370–384Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    N.D. Lagaros, V. Plevris, M. Papadrakakis, Neurocomputing strategies for solving reliability-robust design optimization problems. Eng. Comput. 27(7), 819–840 (2010)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    N.D. Lagaros, M. Fragiadakis, Fragility assessment of steel frames using neural networks. Earthq. Spectra 23(4), 735–752 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    N.D. Lagaros, M. Papadrakakis, Neural network based prediction schemes of the non-linear seismic response of 3D buildings. Adv. Eng. Softw. 44(1), 92–115 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Wang, C. Zhang, H. Zhu, X. Huang, L. Zhang, RBF Nonsmooth control method for vibration of building structure with actuator failure. Complexity 2017, Article ID 2513815, 7 p (2017)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets. Inf. Control 8(3), 338–353 (1965)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    D.A. Shook, P.N. Roschke, P.Y. Lin, C.H. Loh, Semi-active control of a torsionally-responsive structure. Eng. Struct. 31(1), 57–68 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    D.A. Shook, P.N. Roschke, P.Y. Lin, C.H. Loh, GA-optimized fuzzy logic control of a large-scale building for seismic loads. Eng. Struct. 30(2), 436–449 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    D.G. Reigles, M.D. Symans, Supervisory fuzzy control of a base-isolated benchmark building utilizing a neuro-fuzzy model of controllable fluid viscous dampers, in Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 13, no. 2–3 (2006), pp. 724–747Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    H. Adeli, X. Jiang, Dynamic fuzzy wavelet neural network model for structural system identification. J. Struct. Eng. 132(1), 102–111 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J.H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (MIT Press, 1975)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    C. Camp, S. Pezeshk, G. Cao, Optimized design of two-dimensional structures using a genetic algorithm. J. Struct. Eng. 124(5), 551–559 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    H.N. Li, X.L. Li, Experiment and analysis of torsional seismic responses for asymmetric structures with semi-active control by MR dampers. Smart Mater. Struct. 18(7) (2009)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    X. Jiang, H. Adeli, Neuro-genetic algorithm for non-linear active control of structures. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 75(7), 770–786 (2008)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    O. Yoshida, S.J. Dyke, Response control of full-scale irregular buildings using magnetorheological dampers. J. Struct. Eng. 131(5), 734–742 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    H.N. Li, Z.G. Chang, G.B. Song, D.S. Li, Studies on structural vibration control with MR dampers using GA, in American Control Conference, vol. 6, Boston, MA (2004), pp. 5478–5482Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Y. Arfiadi, M.N.S. Hadi, Passive and active control of three-dimensional buildings. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 29(3), 377–396 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    W.A. Crossley, A.M. Cook, D.W. Fanjoy, V.B. Venkayya, Using the two branch tournament genetic algorithm for multiobjective design. AIAA J. 37(2), 261–267 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    H.-N. Li, L.-S. Huo, Optimal design of liquid dampers for torsionally coupled vibration of structures. Intell. Control Autom. 5, 4535–4538 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Automatic ControlCINVESTAV - Instituto Politécnico NacionalMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of Engineering Design and MathematicsUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

Personalised recommendations