Advertisement

Health Maintenance and Preventive Care in Older Adutls with Dementia

  • Ursula K. BraunEmail author
Chapter
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter discusses appropriate preventive testing in older adults, which requires weighing the benefits and burdens of testing. Decisions regarding which tests to offer need to be stratified by patients’ estimated life expectancy, which is not just determined by chronological age alone but more so by physical and cognitive functioning as well as major comorbidities. Beneficial preventive measures should be offered to older adults. Methods for optimizing delivery of preventive services, including cancer screening tests, other screening tests, healthy lifestyle counseling, immunizations, chemoprophylaxis, and how to improve health promotion in primary care will be discussed.

Keywords

Elderly Life expectancy Geriatric health maintenance Preventive care Immunizations Cancer screening 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    https://www.livingto100.com/calculator. Last Accessed 7/20/2019.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    https://eprognosis.ucsf.edu/pps.php. Last Accessed 7/20/2019.
  14. 14.
    Schoenborn NL, Lee K, Pollack CE, Armacost K, Dy SM, Bridges JFP, Xue QL, Wolff AC, Boyd C. Older adults’ views and communication preferences about cancer screening cessation. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(8):1121–28. Published online 2017 Aug 7. Prepublished online 2017 Jun 12.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.1778. PMCID: PMC5564296, NIHMSID: NIHMS895733, PMID: 28604917.
  15. 15.
    Schoenborn NL, Boyd CM, Lee SJ, Cayea D, Pollack CE. Communicating about stopping cancer screening: comparing clinicians’ and older adults’ perspectives. Gerontologist. 2019;59(Supplement_1):S67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny172.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Broder KR, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65(No. RR-5):1–54.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6505a1.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Tomczyk S, Bennett NM, Stoecker C, Gierke R, Moore MR, Whitney CG, et al. Use of PCV-13 and PPSV-23 vaccine among adults aged 65 and older: recommendations of the ACIP. MMWR. 2014;63(37):822–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kobayashi M, Bennett NM, Gierke R, Almendares O, Moore MR, Whitney CG, et al. Intervals between PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2015;64(34):944–7. Print version Cdc-pdf [36 pages].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liang JL, Tiwari T, Moro P, Messonnier NE, Reingold A, Sawyer M, Clark TA. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria with vaccines in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommn Rep. 2018;67(2):1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dooling L, Guo A, Patel M, Lee GM, Moore K, Belongia EA, Harpaz R. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines. MMWR. 2018;67(3):103–8. Accessible at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/pdfs/mm6703a5-H.pdf. Last Accessed 7/21/2019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sheridan S, Pignone M, Donahue K. Screening for high blood pressure: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:151–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wolff T, Miller T. Evidence for the reaffirmation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on screening for high blood pressure. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:787–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Siu AL, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163:861–8.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-2345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults without cardiovascular risk factors: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017;318(2):167–74.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.7171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Webber EM, Patnode CD, LeBlanc ES, O’Connor EA, Rushkin M, Redmond N. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: :updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018;320(11):1172–91.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.7777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, Daeges M, Jeanne TL. Statins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2016;316(19):2008–24.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.15629.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    Glynn RJ, Koenig W, Nordestgaard BG, et al. Rosuvastatin for primary prevention in older persons with elevated C-reactive protein and low to average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: exploratory analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:488–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Curry SJ, et al., for the USPSTF. Screening for osteoporosis to prevent fractures: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018;319(24):2521–31.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.7498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/FRAX/. Last Accessed 7/21/2019.
  36. 36.
    Rubin H, Abrahamsen B, Frijs-Holmberg T, Hjelmborg JVB, Bech M, Hermann P, Barkmann R, Gluer CC, Brixen K. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study. Bone. 2013;56(1):16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE, et al. Prevalence and associations of abdominal aortic aneurysm detected through screening. Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(6):441–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Siu AL, and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Screening for depression inadults US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;315(4):380–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.18392.
  40. 40.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care. 2003;41(11):1284–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yesavage J, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res. 1983;17:37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moyer VA, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:349–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Corona G, Lee DM, Forti G, et al. Age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). J Sex Med. 2010;7(4):1362–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ambler DR, Bieber EJ, Diamond MP. Sexual function in elderly women: a review of current literature. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012;5(1):16–27. PMCID: PMC3349920 PMID: 22582123.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jena A, Goldman D, Komdar A, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases and users of erectile dysfunction drugs: analysis of claims data. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
    O’Connor EA, Perdue LA, Senger CA, et al. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce unhealthy alcohol use in adolescents and adults: updated systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force: Evidence Synthesis No. 171. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2018. AHRQ publication 18-05242-EF-1.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Parsons A, Daley A, Begh R, Aveyard P. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;340:b5569.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b5569.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Balduyck B, Sardari Nia P, Cogen A, Dockx Y, Lauwers P, Hendriks J, Van Schil P. The effect of smoking cessation on quality of life after lung cancer surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40(6):1432–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcts.2011.03.004; discussion 1437–8. Epub 2011 Apr 17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fox JL, Rosenzweig KE, Ostroff JS. The effect of smoking status on survival following radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2004;44(3):287–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McNeil JJ, Wolfe R, Woods RL, Tonkin AM, Donnan GA, Nelson MR, et al. Effect of aspirin on cardiovascular events and bleeding in the healthy elderly. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(16):1509–18.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1805819.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
    American Geriatrics Society Workgroup on Vitamin D Supplementation for Older Adults. Recommendations abstracted from the American Geriatrics Society consensus statement on vitamin D for prevention of falls and their consequences. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62:147–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Geriatrics and Palliative MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Rehabilitation and Extended Care LineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations