Friedmann–Robertson–Walker Cosmology

  • Reinhard HentschkeEmail author
  • Christian Hölbling
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


If we average over sufficiently large scales—on the order of 100 Mpc—our universe is homogeneous and isotropic to a high degree. We can therefore study what the Einstein equations tell us about the scale factor a(t) of the FLRW metric. But before we do this, we want to find out what we can infer about the time dependence of a(t) from ordinary Newtonian dynamics.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

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