Advertisement

Neuroplasticity and Other Treatment Options for Cognitive and Behavioral Neurological Syndromes

  • Michael Hoffmann
Chapter
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

It would be a remiss not to have a section enunciating potential treatments of the several hundred cognitive and behavioral syndromes mentioned in the foregoing chapters. There has been renewed focus on working with the brain’s inherent neuroplasticity, which has been relatively ignored until recently. The predominant focus over the past few decades has been on neuropharmacological or pill-centric approaches. Furthermore, we have also had a gene-centric approach that had been initially promising since the recently completed Human Genome Project. This too has given way to the epigenetic and small RNA science from direct environmental influences. Finally, due to a memory-centric culture over the past few decades, much of clinical dementia and mild cognitive impairment may have been obscured by other important symptoms and dementias other than Alzheimer’s disease.

References

  1. 1.
    Xie L, et al. Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. Science. 2013;342:373–377 and underwood E. sleep: the Brain’s housekeeper? Science. 2013;342:301.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fregni F, Pascual-Leone A. Technology insight: noninvasive brain stimulation in neurology: perspectives on the therapeutic potential of rTMS and tDCS. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007;3:383–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindenberger U, Wenger E, Lövden M. Towards a stronger science of human plasticity. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017;18:261–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cavanaugh MR, Huxlin KR. Visual discrimination training improves Humphrey perimetry in chronic cortically induced blindness. Neurology. 2017;88:1856–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stern Y, Mackay-Brandt A, Lee S, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise on cognition in younger adults. A randomized clinical trial. Neurology. 2019:e905–16.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahlskog JE, Geda YE, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86(9):876–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A, et al. A 2-year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385:2255–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hughes LE, Rittman T, Robbins TW, Rower JB. Reorganization of cortical oscillatory dynamics underlying disinhibition in frontotemporal dementia. Brain. 2018;141:2486–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomson H. Wave therapy. Nature. 2018;555:20–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malkani RG, Zee PC. BrainStimulation for improving sleep and memory. Sleep Med Clin. 2020;15(1):101–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaczmarczyk R, Tejera D, Simon BJ, Heneka MT. Microglia modulation through external vagus nerve stimulation in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurochem. 2018;146:76.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alcami P, Pereda AE. Beyond plasticity: the dynamic impact of electrical synapses on neural circuits. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2019;20:253–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Connors BW. Synchrony and so much more diverse roles for electrical synapses in neural circuits. Dev Neurobiol. 2017;77:610–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    FIturria-Medina Y, Sotero RC, Toussaint PJ et al. Early role of vascular dysregulation on late onset Alzheimer’s disease based on multifactorial data driven analysis. Nature Communications 21 June 2016.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Osorio C, Kanukuntla T, Diaz E, Jafri N, Cummings M, Sfera A. The post amyloid era in Alzheimer’s disease: trust your gut feeling. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2019.00143.
  16. 16.
    Han W, Tellez LA, Perkins MH, et al. A neural circuit for gut-induced reward. Cell. 2018;175:665–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marcantonio ER. Delirium in hospitalized older adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1456–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tang CY, Carpenter DM, Eaves EL, et al. Occupational solvent exposure and brain function: an f-MRI study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:908–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cahalan S. Brain on fire: my month of madness. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2013.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Novakovic-Agopian T, Chen A, Rome AJW, et al. Rehabilitation of executive functioning with training in attention regulation applied to individually defined goals: a pilot study bridging theory, assessment and treatment. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2011;26:325–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arnsten AFT, Goldman Rakic PS. Alpha 2 adrenergic mechanism in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged non human primates. Science. 1985;230:1273–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arnsten AFT, Steere JC, Hunt RD. The contribution of alpha 2 noradrenergic mechanisms to prefrontal cortical function: potential significance for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;53:448–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sahakian BJ, Coull JJ, Hodges JR. Selective enhancement of executive function by idazoxan in a patient with dementia of the frontal lobe type. J Neurol Neurosurg Pyschiatry. 1994;57:120–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marin RS, Fogel BS, Hawkins J, Duffy J, Krupp B, Tolosa E, Zee DS. Apathy: a treatable syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7:23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wantanabe MD, Martin EM, DeLeon OA, Gaviria M, Pavel DG, Trepashko DW. Successful methylphenidate treatment of apathy after subcortical infarcts. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7:502–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barrett K. Treating organic abulia with bromocriptine and lisuride: Four studies. J Neurol Neurosurg Pyschiatry. 1991;54:7180721.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holmes VF, Fernandes F, Levy JK. Psychostimulant therapy in AIDS related complex patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989;50:5–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parks RW, Crockett DJ, Manji HK, Ammann W. Assessment of bromocriptine intervention for the treatment of frontal lobe syndrome: a case study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;4:109–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hollander E, Wong CM. Body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, and sexual compulsions. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Olivier B, Mos J. Serenics and aggression. Stress Med. 1986;2:197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bakchine S, Lacomblez L, Benoit N, Parisot D, Chain F, Lhermitte F. Manic-like state after bilateral orbitofrontal and right temporoparietal injury: efficacy of clonidine. Neurology. 1989;39:777–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tariot PN, Schneider LS, Cummings J, Thomas RG, Raman R, Jakimovich LJ, Loy R, Bartocci B, Fleisher A, Ismail MS, Porsteinsson A, Weiner M, Jack CR Jr, Thal L, Aisen PS. Chronic divalproex sodium to attenuate agitation and clinical progression of Alzheimer disease.; Alzheimer's disease cooperative study group. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:853–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O'Connor K, Todorov C, Robillard S, Borgeat F, Brault M. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and medication in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled study. Can J Psychiatr. 1999;44:64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Giacino JT, Whyte J, Bagiella E, Kalmar K, Childs N, Khademi A, Eifert B, Long D, Katz DI, Cho S, Yablon SA, Luther M, Hammond FM, Nordenbo A, Novak P, Mercer W, Maurer-Karattup P, Sherer M. Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:819–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Willmott C, Ponsford J. Efficacy of methylphenidate in the rehabilitation of attention following traumatic brain injury: a randomised, crossover, double blind, placebo controlled inpatient trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:552–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chollet F, Tardy J, Albucher JF, Thalamas C, Berard E, Lamy C, Bejot Y, Deltour S, Jaillard A, Niclot P, Guillon B, Moulin T, Marque P, Pariente J, Arnaud C, Loubinoux I. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:123–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rimer J, Dwan K, Lawlor DA, Greig CA, McMurdo M, Morley W, Mead GE. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD004366.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lee JC, Blumberger DM, Fitzgerald P, Daskalakis Z. Levinson a The Role of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Review. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;6. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Farahani A, Correll CU. Are antipsychotics or antidepressants needed for psychotic depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing antidepressant or antipsychotic monotherapy with combination treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(4):486–96.. ReviewPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dougherty DD, Weiss AP, Cosgrove GR, Alpert NM, Cassem EH, Nierenberg AA, Price BH, Mayberg HS, Fischman AJ, Rauch SL. Cerebral metabolic correlates as potential predictors of response to anterior cingulotomy for treatment of major depression. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:1010–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chamberlain SR, Del Campo N, Dowson J, Muller U, Clark L, et al. Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Pyschiatry. 2007;62:977–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Panitch HS, Thisted RA, Smith RA, Wynn DR, Wymer JP, Achiron A, Vollmer TL, Mandler RN, Dietrich DW, Fletcher M, Pope LE, Berg JE, Miller A. Pseudobulbar affect in multiple sclerosis study group. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:780–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller A, Pratt H, Schiffer RB. Pseudobulbar affect: the spectrum of clinical presentations, etiologies and treatments. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:1077–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davidson RJ, Begley S. In their book the emotional life of your brain. New York: Hudson Street Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fava GA, Tomba E. Increasing psychological Well-being and resilience by psychotherapeutic methods. J Pers. 2009;77:1903–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hoelzel BK, Ott U, Gard T, Hempel H, Weygandt M, Morgen K, Vaitl D. Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel based morphometry. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2008;3:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cappa SF, Benke T, Clarke S, Rossi B, Stemmer B, van Heugten CM. EFNS guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation: report of an EFNS task force. Eur Neurol. 2005;12:665–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light KE, Nichols-Larsen DS. Effect of constraint induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006;296:2095–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton SR, Nichols-Larsen DS, Morris DM, Uswatte G, Taub E, Light KE, Swaki L. The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing early and delayed constraint induced movement therapy. Stroke. 2010;41:2309–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Han JW, Oh K, Yoo S, et al. Development of the ubiquitous spaced retrieval-based memory advancement and rehabilitation training program. Psychiatry Investig. 2014;11(1):52–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Haslam C, Moss Z, Hodder K. Are two methods better than one? Evaluating the effectiveness of combining errorless learning with vanishing cues. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010;32(9):973–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stringer AY, Small SK. Ecologically-oriented neurorehabilitation of memory: robustness of outcome across diagnosis and severity. Brain Inj. 2011;25(2):169–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klingberg T, et al. Training of working memory in children with ADHD. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2002;24:781–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Klingberg T, et al. Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD – a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:177–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sibley BA, Beilock SL. Exercise and working memory: an individual differences investigation. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007;29:783–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhu N, Jacobs DR, Schreiner PJ, Yaffe K, Bryan N, Launer LJ, Whitmer RA, Sidney S, Demerath E, Thomas W, Bouchard C, He K, Reis J, Sternfeld B. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age. CARDIA Study Neurol. 2014;82:1339–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smania N, Girardi F, Domenicali C, Lora E, Aglioti S. The rehabilitation of limb apraxia: a study in left-brain-damaged patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(4):379–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bolognini N, Convento S, Banco E, Mattioli F, Tesio L, Vallar G. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left parietal cortex. Brain. 2015;138:428–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bianchi M, Cosseddu M, Cotelli M, Manenti R, Brambilla M, Rizzetti MC, Padovani A, Borroni B. Left parietal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation enhances gesture processing in corticobasal syndrome. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22:1317.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.12748.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Taskapilioglu O, Karli N, Erer S, Zarifoglu M, Bakar M, Turan F. Primary gait ignition disorder: report of three cases. Neurol Sci. 2009;30:333–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Raymer AM, McHose B, Smith KG, Iman L, Ambrose A, Casselton C. Contrasting effects of errorless naming treatment and gestural facilitation for word retrieval in aphasia. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2012;22(2):235–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanlon Brown RE, Brown JW, Gerstman LJ. Enhancement of naming in nonfluent aphasia through gesture. Brain Lang. 1990;38:298–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hadar U, Wenkert-Olenik D, Krauss R, Soroker N. Gesture and processing of speech: neuropsychological evidence. Brain Lang. 1998;62:107–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Garrison KA, et al. The mirror neuron system: a neural substrate for methods in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010;5:404–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bonilha L, Gleichgerrcht E, Nesland T, Rorden C, Fridriksson J. Success of Anomia Treatment in Aphasia Is Associated With Preserved Architecture of Global and Left Temporal Lobe Structural Networks. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015;. pii: 1545968315593808Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Altschuler EL, Multari A, Hirstein W, Ramachandran VS. Situational therapy for Wernicke's aphasia. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):713–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pulvermüller F, Roth VM. Communicative aphasia treatment as a further development of PACE therapy. Aphasiology. 1991;5:39–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Corbetta M. Hemispatial neglect: clinic, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Neurol. 2014;34(5):514–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Matano A, Iosa M, Guariglia C, Pizzamiglio L, Paolucci S. Does outcome of neuropsychological treatment in patients with unilateral spatial neglect after stroke affect functional outcome? Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2015;51:737–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pandian JD, Arora R, Kaur P, et al. Mirror therapy in unilateral neglect after stroke (MUST trial): a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2014;83(11):1012–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arai T, Ohi H, Sasak H, Nobuto H, Tanaka K. Heimspatial sunglasses: effect on unilateral spatial neglect. Archiv Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78:230–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gorgoraptis N, Mah YH, Machner B, et al. The effects of the dopamine agonist rotigotine on hemispatial neglect following stroke. Brain. 2012;135(Pt 8):2478–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Buxbaum LJ, Ferraro M, Whyte J, Gershkoff A, Coslett HB. Amantadine treatment of hemispatial neglect: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86(7):527–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jacquin-Courtois S. Hemi-spatial neglect rehabilitation using non-invasive brain stimulation: Or how to modulate the disconnection syndrome? Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2015. pii: S1877–0657(15)00471–6;  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2015.07.388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goedert KM, Zhang JY, Barrett AM. Prism adaptation and spatial neglect: the need for dose-finding studies. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:243.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00243.. eCollection 2015CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Guilbert A, Clément S, Moroni C. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1503.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01503.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sanders TH, Weiss J, Hogewood L, et al. Cognition-enhancing Vagus nerve stimulation alters the epigenetic landscape. J Neurosci. 2019;39:3454–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Broncel A, Brocian R, Klos-Woitczak P, et al. Vagal nerve stimulation as a promising tool in the improvement of cognitive disorders. Brain Res Bull. 2020;155:37–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.11.011.. Epub 2019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    O’Reardon JP, Cristancho P, Peshek AD. Vagus nerve stimulation and treatment of depression: to the brainstem and beyond. Psychiatry. 2006;3(5):54–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Khurana D, et al. ImpACT 1 study group. Implant for augmentation of cerebral blood flow trial 1: a pilot study. Int J Stroke. 2009;4:480–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ducharme S, Dougherty DD, Price BH. Neurosurgical treatmetns for psychiatric disorders. In: Miller C, editor. The human frontal lobes. London: Guilford Press; 2018.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Turan TN, Nizam A, Lynn MJ, et al. Relationship between risk factor control and vascular events in the SAMMPRIS trial. Neurology. 2017;88:379–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ramachandran VS, Altschuler EL. The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function. Brain. 2009;132:1693–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tang Y-Y, Lu Q, Gen X, Stein EA, Yang Y, Posner MI. Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. PNAS. 2010;107:15649–15,652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Hoffmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of NeurologyUniversity of Central Florida, Chief of Neurology, Orlando VA Medical CenterOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations