The Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Paddy Soil

  • Sepideh Bagheri NovairEmail author
  • Hossein Mir Seyed Hosseini
  • Hassan Etesami
  • Teimour Razavipour
  • Nader Pirmoradian
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


The exchange of carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis must be controlled by both partners in order to sustain an evolutionarily stable mutualism. Plants downregulate their carbon (C) flow to the fungus when nutrient levels are sufficient, while the mechanism controlling fungal nutrient transfer is unknown. Here, we show that the fungus accumulates nutrients when connected to a host that is of less benefit to the fungus, indicating a potential of the fungus to control the transfer of nutrients. We used a monoxenic in vitro model of root organ cultures associated with Glomus intraradices, in which we manipulated the C availability to the plant. We found that G. intraradices accumulated up to seven times more nutrients in its spores, and up to nine times more in its hyphae, when the C pool available to the associated roots was halved. The strongest effect was found for phosphorus (P), considered to be the most important nutrient in the AM symbiosis. Other elements such as potassium and chorine were also accumulated, but to a lesser extent, while no accumulation of iron or manganese was found. Our results suggest a functional linkage between C and P exchange.


AMF Wetlands Biodiversity Aerenchyma Sustainable agriculture 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sepideh Bagheri Novair
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hossein Mir Seyed Hosseini
    • 1
  • Hassan Etesami
    • 1
  • Teimour Razavipour
    • 2
  • Nader Pirmoradian
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)RashtIran
  3. 3.Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of GuilanRashtIran

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