Phages as Therapy or “Dietary Supplements” Against Multiresistant Bacteria?
- 13 Downloads
Bacteria and phages form an ecosystem and play a role in obesity, in Intestinal bowel disease, neurological disorders, in the brain-gut axis and more recently in anticancer therapies. We have shown that fecal transfer can cure a patient from a life -threatening infection with Clostridium difficile. The microbiome and virome of the feces of a patient before and after fecal transfer has been analyzed, where phages play a role.
Phages form a quasispecies and are highly specialized to specific bacterial hosts. Further studies are required to develop broad-range phages similar to broad-range antibiotics.
Phages do not fit into the regulatory presently required definition as a medicinal product. They should be defined differently to enable scientists and medical doctors to evaluate them for general phage therapy. They should be defined as food supplements or dietary products, or probiotics similar to probiotic bacteria. Then they could be evaluated for more general applications for people with infections. The rules need to be changed.
I want to thank Dr. Felix Broecker for discussions and critical reading of the mansucript. I am grateful to “Betty” Kutter for critical reading of the manuscript.
There are no obligations.
- Appelt B, Böl GF, Greiner M, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M, Hensel A, EHEC Outbreak (2011) Investigation of the outbreak along the foodchain. Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfRGoogle Scholar
- Broecker F, Moelling K (2019) Evolution of immune systems from viruses and transposable elements. Front Microbiol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00051
- Broecker F, Klumpp J, Schuppler M, Russo G, Biedermann L et al (2016) Long-term changes of bacterial and viral compositions in the instestine of a recovered Clostridium difficile patient after fecal microbiota transplantation. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2:a000448. https://doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a000448CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Brüssow H (2019b) Probiotics and prebiotics in clinical tests: an update. eCollection 2019:F1000ResGoogle Scholar
- d’Hèrelle F (1917) Sur un microbe unvisible antagoniste des bacteries dysentériques, Comptes Rendues Acad Sci Paris 165:373–375, or d’Hèrelle F (1917) On an unvisible microbe antagonist of dysenteric bacteria Comptes Rendues Acad Sci Paris 165:373–375Google Scholar
- De Sordi L, Lourenco M, Debarbieux L (2019) I will survive: a tale of bacteriophage-bacteria coevolution in the gut. Gut Microbes 10:92–99Google Scholar
- Dedrick RM, Guerrero-Bustamante CA, Garlena RA, Russell DA, Ford K, Harris K, Gilmour KC, Soothill J, Jacobs-Sera D, Schooley RT, Hatfull GF, Spencer H (2019) Engineered bacteriophages for treatment of a patient with a disseminated drug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus. Nat Med 25:730–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hankin EH (1896) L’action bactericide des eaux de la Jumna et du Gange sur le vibrion du cholera (in French). Ann Inst Pasteur Bacteriophage 10:511–523Google Scholar
- Hope A (2019) Liver transplant baby saved by “trained” virus at Saint-Luc hospital The Brussels Time, 22.5.2019 BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Kuehn C, Rubalskii E, Rohde C reported on television, “Visite” 11.06.2019, Norddeutscher Rundfunk, NDRGoogle Scholar
- Leitner L, Sybesma W, Chanishvili N, Goderdzishvili M, Chkhotua A, Ujmajuridze A, Schneider MP, Sartori A, Mehnert U, Bachmann LM, Kessler (2017) TM bacteriophages for treating urinary tract infections in patients undergoing transurethral ressection of the prostate: a eandomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clincal trial. BMC Urol 17:90–95Google Scholar
- Makarova KS, Haft DH, Barrangou R, Brouns SJ, Charpentier E, Horvath P, Moineau S, Mojica FJ, Wolf YI, Yakunin AF, van der Oost J, Koonin EV (2011) Evolution and classification of the CRISPR/Cas sytems. NatRev Mikrobiol 9:467–477Google Scholar
- Manrique P, Bolduc B, Walk ST, van der Oost J, de Vos WM, Young M (2016) Healthy human gut phageome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 13:1000–10405Google Scholar
- Moelling K (2019) New case reports with phage therapy- what is needed for more? Nurs Health Care 4:30–32Google Scholar
- Ott SJ, Waetzig GH, Rehman A, Moltzau-Anderson J, Bharti R, Grasis JA, Cassidy L, Tholey A, Fickenscher H, Seegert D, Rosenstiel P, Schreiber S (2017) Efficacy of sterile fecal filtrate transfer for treating patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 152:799–811. e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt CG (2019) Phage therapy’s latest makeover. Nat Biotechnol 37:581–586Google Scholar
- Schooley RT, Biswas B, Gill JJ, Hernandez-Morales A, Lancaster J, Lessor L, Barr JJ, Reed SL, Rohwer F, Benler S, Segall AM, Taplitz R, Smith DM, Kerr K, Kumaraswamy M, Nizet V, Lin L, McCauley MD, Strathdee SA, Benson CA, Pope RK, Leroux BM, Picel AC, Mateczun AJ, Cilwa KE, Regeimbal JM, Estrella LA, Wolfe DM, Henry MS, Quinones J, Salka S, Bishop-Lilly KA, Young R, Hamilton T (2017) Development and use of personalized bacteriophage-based therapeutic cocktails to treat a patient with a disseminated resistant acinetobacter baumannii infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61:e00954–e00917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsulukidze AP (1941) Experience of use of bacteriophages in the conditions of war traumatism (in Russian). Tbilisi, GruzmedgizGoogle Scholar