Advertisement

Cultural Intelligence of Offshore IT Suppliers

Chapter
  • 42 Downloads
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

Today’s IT service suppliers increasingly need to acquire “cultural intelligence”, or the ability to operate in a culturally-diverse environment. Based on an interview-based, qualitative case study of one of the largest IT service suppliers in China, this study explores how the offshore IT service supplier develops cultural intelligence through interaction with a portfolio of clients with diverse cultural backgrounds. Drawing on the dynamic constructivist view of culture, the study adapts the concept of cultural frame to define a set of shared interpretive schemes and practices that enable the supplier to make sense of and respond to clients from different cultures. During repeated client-supplier interaction, supplier employees’ cultural frames are continuously enacted, aligned and realigned, and eventually institutionalized into a set of cultural structures and artifacts. This emergence and embedding process is both facilitated by, and in turn enhances, the supplier’s firm-level cultural intelligence.

Keywords

IT outsourcing Cultural intelligence Supplier’s perspective Offshoring 

References

  1. Abell, P., Felin, T., & Foss, N. (2008). Building micro-foundations for the routines, capabilities, and performance links. Managerial and Decision Economics, 29(6), 489–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agar, M. (1994). The intercultural frame. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(2), 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amburgey, T. L., & Singh, J. V. (2005). Organizational evolution. In J. A. C. Baum (Ed.), Companion to organizations (pp. 327–343). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Ang, S., & Inkpen, A. C. (2008). Cultural intelligence and offshore outsourcing success: A framework of firm-level intercultural capability. Decision Sciences, 39(3), 337–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  6. Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay-Lee, S. L. C., et al. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 331–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aubert, B. A., Patry, M., & Rivard, S. (2005). A framework for information technology outsourcing risk management. The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, 36(4), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avison, D. E., & Myers, M. D. (1995). Information systems and anthropology: An anthropological perspective on IT and organizational culture. Information Technology & People, 8(3), 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avison, D. E., & Banks, P. (2008). Cross-cultural (mis)communication in IS offshoring: Understanding through conversation analysis. Journal of Information Technology, 23(4), 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D. K., & Mead, M. (1987). The case research strategy in studies of information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benet-Martínez, V., Leu, J., Lee, F., & Morris, M. W. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(5), 492–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benford, R. D., & Snow, D. A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bensaou, M., & Anderson, E. (1999). Buyer-supplier relations in industrial markets: When do buyers risk making idiosyncratic investments? Organization Science, 10(4), 460–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  15. Bird, A., & Osland, J. S. (2006). Making sense of intercultural collaboration. International Journal of Management and Organizations, 3(4), 115–132.Google Scholar
  16. Birkinshaw, J., Brannen, M. Y., & Tung, R. L. (2011). From a distance and generalizable to up close and grounded: Reclaiming a place for qualitative methods in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 573–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brannen, M. Y. (2004). When Mickey loses face: Recontextualization, semantic fit, and the semiotics of foreignness. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 593–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brannen, M. Y., & Salk, J. E. (2000). Partnering across borders: Negotiating organizational culture in a German-Japanese joint venture. Human Relations, 53(4), 451–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brannen, M. Y., & Thomas, D. C. (2010). Bicultural individuals in organizations: Implications and opportunity. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 10(1), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Capar, N., & Kotabe, M. (2003). The relationship between international diversification and performance in service firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(4), 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmel, E., & Agarwal, R. (2001). Tactical approaches for alleviating distance in global software development. IEEE Software, 18(2), 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carmel, E., Gao, G., & Zhang, N. (2008). The maturing Chinese offshore IT services industry: It takes 10 years to sharpen a sword. MIS Quarterly Executive, 7(4), 157–170.Google Scholar
  24. Chen, Y. R., Leung, K., & Chen, C. C. (2009). Bringing national culture to the table: Making a difference with cross-cultural differences and perspectives. Academy of Management Annals, 3(1), 217–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen, X., Liu, D., & Portnoy, R. (2012). A multilevel investigation of motivational cultural intelligence, organizational diversity climate, and cultural sales: Evidence from U.S. real estate firms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Child, J., & Rodrigues, S. B. (2005). The internationalization of Chinese firms: A case for theoretical extension? Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 381–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chua, R. Y. J., Morris, M. W., & Ingram, P. (2009). Guanxi vs networking: Distinctive configurations of affect- and cognition-based trust in the networks of Chinese vs American managers. Journal of International Business Studies, 40, 490–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CISIS (China International Software and Information Service Fair). (2011). About CISIS. http://www.cisis.com.cn/News/735/2298/Newsdis2967.aspx.
  29. Cramton, C., & Hinds, P. (2007). intercultural interaction in distributed teams: Salience of and adaptations to cultural differences. In Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  30. Currall, S. C., & Inkpen, A. C. (2002). A multilevel approach to trust in joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3), 479–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, G. F., McAdam, D., Scott, W. R., & Zald, M. N. (2005). Social movements and organization theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dedrick, J., & Kraemer, K. L. (2006). Is production pulling knowledge work to China? A study of the notebook PC industry. IEEE Computer, 39(7), 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dedrick, J., Kraemer, K. L., & Linden, G. (2010). Who profits from innovation in global value chains?: A study of the iPod and notebook PCs. Industrial and Corporate Change, 19(1), 81–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dibbern, J., Winkler, J., & Heinzl, A. (2008). Explaining variations in client extra costs between software projects offshored to India. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 333–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dibbern, J., Chin, W. W., & Heinzl, A. (2012). Systemic determinants of the information systems outsourcing decision: A comparative study of German and United States firms. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(6), 466–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DiMaggio, P. (1997). Culture and cognition. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doherty, N. F., & Doig, G. (2003). An analysis of the anticipated cultural impacts of the implementation of data warehouses. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 50(1), 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Doney, P. M., Cannon, J. P., & Mullen, M. R. (1998). Understanding the influence of national culture on the development of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 601–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Du, W., & Pan, S. L. (2010). Boundary spanning by design: Insights from a vendor perspective. In Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paper 222.Google Scholar
  40. Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. (2000). The determinants of trust in supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Journal of International Business Studies, 31(2), 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. (2011). The determinants of trust in supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea: A retrospective. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Eisenhardt, K. M., Furr, N. R., & Bingham, C. B. (2010). Microfoundations of performance: balancing efficiency and flexibility in dynamic environments. Organization Science, 21(6), 1263–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ethiraj, S., Kale, P., Krishnan, M., & Singh, J. (2005). Where do capabilities come from and how do they matter? A study in the software services industry. Strategic Management Journal, 26(1), 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fan, J., Huang, J., Morck, R., & Yeung, B. (2009). Vertical integration, institutional determinants and impact: Evidence from China. NBER Working Paper, No. 14650.Google Scholar
  46. Fischer, R. (2006). Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: Do my values reflect my culture’s values? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1419–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fiss, P. C., & Hirsch, P. M. (2005). The discourse of globalization: Framing and sensemaking of an emerging concept. American Sociological Review, 70(1), 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fligstein, N., & McAdam, D. (2011). Toward a general theory of strategic action fields. Sociological Theory, 29(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ford, D. P., Connelly, C. E., & Meister, D. B. (2003). Information systems research and Hofstede’s culture’s consequences: An uneasy and incomplete partnership. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 50(1), 8–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fu, H. J., Chiu, C., Morris, M. W., & Young, J. M. (2007). Spontaneous inferences from cultural cues: Varying responses of cultural insiders and outsiders. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(1), 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gartner. (2010). Gartner says India still no. 1 destination for offshore services. http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1502714.
  52. Garud, R., Kumaraswamy, A., & Sambamurthy, V. (2006). Emergent by design: Performance and transformation at Infosys Technologies. Organization Science, 17(2), 277–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gasson, S. (2004). Rigor in grounded theory research: An interpretive perspective on generating theory from qualitative field studies. In M. Whitman & A. Woszczynski (Eds.), The Handbook of Information Systems Research (pp. 79–102). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.Google Scholar
  54. Gefen, D., & Carmel, E. (2008). Is the world really flat? A look at offshoring at an online programming marketplace. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., & Raver, J. L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1225–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilbert, D. T. (1991). How mental systems believe. American Psychologist, 46(2), 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  58. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Goodall, K. (2002). Managing to learn: From cross-cultural theory to management education practice. In M. Warner & P. Joynt (Eds.), Managing across cultures: Issues and perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 256–268). London: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  60. Gould, S. J., & Grein, A. F. (2009). Think glocally, act glocally: A culture-centric comment on Leung, Bhagat, Buchan, Erez and Gibson (2005). Journal of International Business Studies, 40, 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Guthrie, D. J. (1998). The declining significance of Guanxi in China’s economic transition. The China Quarterly, 154, 254–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guthrie, D. (2005). Organizational learning and productivity: State structure and foreign investment in the rise of the Chinese corporation. Management and Organization Review, 1(2), 165–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hahn, E. D., Doh, J. P., & Bunyaratavej, K. (2009). The evolution of risk in information systems offshoring: The impact of home country risk, firm learning, and competitive dynamics. MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 597–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harris, S. G. (1994). Organizational culture and individual sensemaking: A schema-based perspective. Organization Science, 5(3), 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heeks, R., Krishna, S., Nicholson, B., & Sahay, S. (2001). Synching or sinking: Global software outsourcing relationships. IEEE Software, 18(2), 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Herskovitz, M. J. (1955). Cultural anthropology. New York, NY: Knopf.Google Scholar
  67. Hinds, P., Liu, L., & Lyon, J. (2011). Putting the global in global work: An intercultural lens on the practice of cross-national collaboration. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 135–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  70. Hong, H. (2010). Bicultural competence and its impact on team effectiveness. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 10(1), 93–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hong, Y. Y., & Chiu, C. Y. (2001). Toward a paradigm shift: From cross-cultural differences in social cognition to social-cognitive mediation of cultural differences. Social Cognition, 19(3), 181–196.Google Scholar
  72. Hong, Y. Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C. Y., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hong, Y. Y., Ip, G., Chiu, C. Y., Morris, M., & Menon, T. (2001). Cultural identity and dynamic construction of the self: Collective duties and individual rights in CHINESE AND American cultures. Social Cognition, 19, 251–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  75. Howard-Grenville, J., Golden-Biddle, K., Irwin, J., & Mao, J. (2011). Liminality as cultural process for cultural change. Organization Science, 22(2), 522–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hunt, L. (1984). Politics, culture, and class in the French revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  77. Hymer, S. H. (1976). The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  78. IAOP (International Association of Outsourcing Professionals). (2008). The 2008 global outsourcing 100. http://www.iaop.org/content/23/152/1619/.
  79. IAOP (International Association of Outsourcing Professionals). (2009). The 2009 global outsourcing 100. http://www.iaop.org/content/23/152/1858/.
  80. IAOP (International Association of Outsourcing Professionals). (2010). The 2010 global outsourcing 100. http://www.iaop.org/Content/19/165/3179.
  81. IAOP (International Association of Outsourcing Professionals). (2011). The 2011 global outsourcing 100. http://www.iaop.org/content/23/152/2040.
  82. IAOP (International Association of Outsourcing Professionals). (2012). The 2012 global outsourcing 100. http://www.iaop.org/content/19/165/3437.
  83. Inkpen, A. C., & Beamish, P. W. (1997). Knowledge, bargaining power, and the instability of international joint ventures. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 177–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Leidner, D. E. (1999). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Organization Science, 10(6), 791–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Mao, J. Y. (2008). Operational capabilities development in mediated offshore software services models. Journal of Information Technology, 23(1), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Johanson, J., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. (1975). The internationalization of the firm: Four Swedish cases. Journal of Management Studies, 12(3), 305–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitment. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. E. (2009). The uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1411–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kaiser, K., & Hawk, S. (2004). Evolution of offshore software development: From outsourcing to cosourcing. MIS Quarterly Executive, 3(2), 69–81.Google Scholar
  90. Kale, P., & Singh, H. (2007). Building firm capabilities through learning: The role of the alliance learning process in alliance capability and firm-level alliances success. Strategic Management Journal, 28(10), 981–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaplan, S. (2008). Framing contests: Strategy making under uncertainty. Organization Science, 19(5), 729–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kappos, A., & Rivard, S. (2008). A three-perspective model of culture, information systems, and their development and use. MIS Quarterly, 32(3), 601–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Katsikeas, C. S., Skarmeas, D., & Bello, D. C. (2009). Developing successful trust-based international exchange relationships. Journal of International Business Studies, 40, 132–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. King, W. R., & Torkzadeh, G. (2008). Information systems offshoring: Research status and issues. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Klein, H. K., & Myers, M. D. (1999). A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive field studies in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 23(1), 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Knight, G. (1999). International services marketing: Review of research, 1980–1998. Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4/5), 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Koh, C., Ang, S., & Straub, D. W. (2004). IT outsourcing success: A psychological contract perspective. Information System Research, 15(4), 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. KPMG. (2009). A new dawn—China’s emerging role in global outsourcing. http://www.kpmg.com/CN/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/china-global-outsourcing-O-0904.pdf.
  99. Krishna, S., Sahay, S., & Walsham, G. (2004). Managing cross-cultural issues in global software outsourcing. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 62–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lacity, M. C., Khan, S., Yan, A., & Willcocks, L. P. (2010). A review of the IT outsourcing empirical literature and future research directions. Journal of Information Technology, 25, 395–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lane, P. J., Salk, J. E., & Lyles, M. A. (2001). Absorptive capacity, learning, and performance in international joint ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 22(12), 1139–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lanzara, G. F., & Patriotta, G. (2007). The institutionalization of knowledge in an automotive factory: Templates, inscriptions, and the problem of durability. Organization Studies, 28(5), 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lau, I. Y., Chiu, C., & Lee, S. (2001). Communication and shared reality: Implications for the psychological foundations of culture. Social Cognition, 19, 350–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lavie, D., & Miller, S. R. (2008). Alliance portfolio internationalization and firm performance. Organization Science, 19(4), 623–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Leidner, D. E., & Kayworth, T. (2006). A review of culture in information systems research: Toward a theory of information technology culture conflict. MIS Quarterly, 30(2), 357–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Leonardi, P. M., & Bailey, D. (2008). Transformational technologies and the creation of new work practices: Making implicit knowledge explicit in task-based offshoring. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Leung, K., Bhagat, R. S., Buchan, N. R., Erez, M., & Gibson, C. B. (2005). Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research. Journal of International Business Studies, 36, 357–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Leung, K., Bhagat, R., Buchan, N. R., Erez, M., & Gibson, C. B. (2011). Beyond national culture and culture-centricism: A reply to Gould and Grein (2009). Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Levina, N., & Ross, J. (2003). From the vendor’s perspective: Exploring the value proposition in IT outsourcing. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 331–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Levina, N., & Vaast, E. (2005). The emergence of boundary spanning competence in practice: Implications for implementation and use of information systems. MIS Quarterly, 29(2), 335–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Levina, N., & Su, N. (2008). Global multisourcing strategy: The emergence of a supplier portfolio in services offshoring. Decision Sciences, 39(3), 541–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Levina, N., & Vaast, E. (2008). Innovating or doing as told? Status differences and overlapping boundaries in offshore collaboration. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 307–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Levina, N., Gallivan, M., Su, N., Pan, S. L., Hsu, J., & Mao, J. Y. (2011). Studying China’s IT services industry: Generalizations, particularities, and the competitive outlook. In Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Paper 6.Google Scholar
  115. Lounsbury, M., & Glynn, M. A. (2001). Cultural entrepreneurship: Stories, legitimacy, and the acquisition of resources. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7), 545–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Luo, Y., & Shenkar, O. (2011). Toward a perspective of cultural friction in international business. Journal of International Management, 17, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. MacDuffie, J. P. (2011). Inter-organizational trust and the dynamics of distrust. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Madon, S. (1992). Computer-based information systems for development planning: The significance of cultural factors. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 1(5), 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Malone, T. W., & Crowston, K. (1994). The interdisciplinary study of coordination. ACM Computing Surveys, 26(1), 87–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Martinsons, M. G., & Hempel, P. S. (1998). Chinese business process re-engineering. International Journal of Information Management, 18(6), 393–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McEvily, B., & Marcus, A. (2005). Embedded ties and the acquisition of competitive capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 26(11), 1033–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McSweeney, B. (2009). Dynamic diversity: Variety and variation within countries. Organization Studies, 30(9), 933–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  124. Morck, R., Yeung, B., & Zhao, M. (2008). Perspectives on China’s outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Morosini, P., Shane, P., & Singh, H. (1998). National cultural distance and cross-border acquisition performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1), 137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Morris, M. W., & Fu, H. (2001). How does culture influence conflict resolution: A dynamic constructivist analysis. Social Cognition, 19(3), 324–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Myers, M. D. (2004). Hermeneutics in information systems research. In J. Mingers & L. P. Willcocks (Eds.), Social Theory and Philosophy for Information Systems (pp. 103–128) Chichester, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  128. Myers, M. D., & Tan, F. B. (2002). Beyond models of national culture in information systems research. Journal of Global Information Management, 10(1), 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Naughton, B. (1996). Growing out of the plan: Chinese economic reform, 1978–1993. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Newsweek. (2008). Rise of the sea turtles. Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/151730/page/1.
  131. Nicholson, B., & Sahay, S. (2001). Some political and cultural implications of the globalisation of software development: Case experience from UK and India. Information and Organisation, 11(1), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Olsson, H. H., Conchúir, E. Ó., Ågerfalk, P. J., & Fitzgerald, B. (2008). Two-stage offshoring: An investigation of the Irish bridge. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L. (2007). Managing dispersed expertise in IT offshore outsourcing: Lessons from Tata Consulting Services. MISQ Executive, 6(2), 53–65.Google Scholar
  134. Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2000). Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cross-cultural sensemaking in context. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  135. Osland, J. S., Bird, A., & Gundersen, A. (2007). Trigger events in intercultural sensemaking. Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Management Meeting.Google Scholar
  136. Oyersman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pattillo-McCoy, M. (1998). Church culture as a strategy of action in the black community. American Sociological Review, 63(6), 767–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  139. Peng, M. W. (2003). Institutional transitions and strategic choices. Academy of Management Review, 28(2), 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Perretti, F., Negro, G., & Lomi, A. (2008). E Pluribus Unum: Framing, Matching, and Organizational Form Emergence in U.S. Television Broadcasting, 1940-1960. Organization Science, 19(4), 533–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rai, A., Maruping, L. M., & Venkatesh, V. (2009). Offshore information systems project success: The role of social embeddedness and cultural characteristics. MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 617–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rao, H. (1994). The social construction of reputation: Certification contests, legitimation, and the survival of organizations in the American automobile industry, 1895–1912. Strategic Management Journal, 15(Winter Special Issue), 29–44.Google Scholar
  143. Rao, H. (1998). Caveat emptor: The construction of nonprofit consumer watchdog organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 103(4), 912–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rao, H., Monin, P., & Durand, R. (2003). Institutional change in Toque Ville: Nouvelle Cuisine as an identity movement in French gastronomy. American Journal of Sociology, 108(4), 795–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Redding, S. G. (1994). Comparative management theory: Jungle, zoo or fossil bed? Organization Studies, 15(3), 323–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rindova, V., Dalpiaz, E., & Ravasi, D. (2011). A cultural quest: A study of organizational use of new cultural resources in strategy formation. Organization Science, 22(2), 413–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ring, P. S., & van de Ven, A. H. (1994). Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 19(1), 90–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rottman, J., & Hao, L. (2008). Can China compete with India in the global ITO/BPO market? In M. Lacity & J. Rottman (Eds.), Offshore outsourcing of IT work (pp. 180–208). London, U.K.: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  149. Sahay, S., Nicholson, B., & Krishna, S. (2003). Global IT outsourcing: Software development across borders. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Salk, J. E., & Brannen, M. Y. (2000). National culture, networks, and individual influence in a multinational management team. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 191–202.Google Scholar
  151. Sarker, S., & Sarker, S. (2009). Exploring agility in distributed information systems development teams: An interpretive study in an offshoring context. Information Systems Research, 20(3), 440–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schreiner, M., Kale, P., & Corsten, D. (2009). What really is alliance management capability and how does it impact alliance outcomes and success? Strategic Management Journal, 30(13), 1395–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sia, C. L., Lim, K. H., Leung, K., Lee, M. K. O., Huang, W. W., & Benbasat, I. (2009). Web strategies to promote internet shopping: Is cultural-customization needed? MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Simonin, B. L. (1999). Ambiguity and the process of knowledge transfer in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 20(7), 595–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Snow, D. A., Rochford, E. B., Worden, S. K., Jr., & Benford, R. D. (1986). Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. American Sociological Review, 51(4), 464–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Soh, C., Kien, S. S., & Tay-Yap, J. (2000). Enterprise resource planning: Cultural fits and misfits: is ERP a universal solution? Communications of the ACM, 43(4), 47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Srite, M., & Karahanna, E. (2006). The influence of national culture on the acceptance of information technologies: An empirical study. MIS Quarterly, 30(3), 679–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Starbuck, W. H., & Milliken, F. J. (1988). Executives’ personal filters: What they notice and how they make sense. In D. C. Hambrick (Ed.), The executive effect: Concepts and methods for studying top managers (p. 51). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  160. Steensma, H. K., Tihanyi, L., Lyles, M. A., & Dhanaraj, C. (2005). The evolving value of foreign partnerships in transitioning economies. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 213–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Straub, D., Loch, K., Evaristo, R., Karahanna, E., & Srite, M. (2002). Toward a theory-based measurement of culture. Journal of Global Information Management, 10(1), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1997). Grounded theory in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  163. Stolte, J. F., & Fender, S. (2007). Framing social values: An experimental study of culture and cognition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70(1), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Strang, D., & Meyer, J. W. (1993). Institutional conditions for diffusion. Theory and Society, 22, 487–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51(2), 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Taras, V., Kirkman, B. L., & Steel, P. (2010). Examining the impact of culture’s consequences: A three-decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede’s cultural value dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 405–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tiwana, A., & Bush, A. A. (2007). A comparison of transaction cost, agency, and knowledge-based predictors of IT outsourcing decisions: A U.S.-Japan cross-cultural field study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(1), 259–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tiwana, A., Bush, A. A., Tsuji, H., Yoshida, K., & Sakurai, A. (2008). Myths and paradoxes in Japanese IT offshoring. Communications of the ACM, 51(10), 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hills.Google Scholar
  170. Triandis, H. C., Vassiliou, V., Vassiliou, G., Tanaka, Y., & Shanmugam, A. V. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  171. Tsoukas, H., & Vladimirou, E. (2001). What is organizational knowledge? Journal of Management Studies, 38(6), 973–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tung, R. L. (2008). The cross-cultural research imperative: The need to balance cross-national and intra-national diversity. Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tung, R. L., & Verbeke, A. (2010). Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 1259–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Vaast, E., & Levina, N. (2006). Multiple faces of codification: Organizational redesign in an IT organization. Organization Science, 17(2), 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vlaar, P. W. L., Van Fenema, P. C., & Tiwari, V. (2008). Cocreating understanding and value in distributed work: How members of onsite and offshore vendor teams give, make, demand, and break sense. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 227–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Walsham, G. (2002). Cross-cultural software production and use: A structurational analysis. MIS Quarterly, 26(4), 359–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wan, C., Chiu, C. Y., Tam, K. P., Lee, S. L., Lau, I. Y.-M., & Peng, S. Q. (2007). Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wedeen, L. (2002). Conceptualizing culture: Possibilities for political science. The American Political Science Review, 96(4), 713–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Weick, K. E. (1999). Sensemaking as an organizational dimension of global change. In D. L. Cooperrider & J. E. Dutton (Eds.), Organizational dimensions of global change (pp. 39–56). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  180. Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Obstfeld, D. (2005). Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organization Science, 16(4), 409–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wiener, M., Vogel, B., & Amberg, M. (2010). Information systems offshoring—A literature review and analysis. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 27(1), 455–492.Article 25.Google Scholar
  182. Yang, M. M. (1994). Gifts, favors and banquets: The art of social relationships in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  183. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  184. Zaheer, S. (1995). Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 341–363.Google Scholar
  185. Zaheer, A., & Kamal, D. F. (2011). Creating trust in piranha-infested waters: The confluence of buyer, supplier and host country contexts. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zaheer, A., McEvily, B., & Perrone, V. (1998). Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organization Science, 9(2), 141–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhang, M., Sarker, S., & Sarker, S. (2008). Unpacking the effect of IT capability on the performance of export-focused SMEs: A report from China. Information Systems Journal, 18(4), 357–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zou, X., Tam, K., Morris, M. W., Lee, S., Lau, I. Y., & Chiu, C. (2009). Culture as common sense: Perceived consensus versus personal beliefs as mechanisms of cultural influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 579–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ivey Business SchoolWestern UniversityLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations