Advertisement

Historical Narratives of the Ogoni and the Ijaw

  • Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu
Chapter
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter focuses on how the narratives of the Ogoni led to nonviolence and those of the Ijaw to violence. This first empirical chapter seeks to elucidate the reasons why although the Ogoni and the Ijaw reside within a related topography, sharing similar origins, values and culture, the narratives from the two groups do not present them as having a collective voice or as collectively representing the Niger Delta. The narratives will be analysed to show that the discourses used to denote the grievances of the two movements are distinct, with the Ogoni using a moderate nonviolent form of discourse and the Ijaw indicating a stronger and more contentious debate while charting a distinct cause. This distinction will clarify that the narratives each work for particular communities that have significant context specificity of their own.

References

  1. Abubakar, I. H. (1986). Public finance and budgeting: Principles, practice and issues with particular reference to Nigeria. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  2. Akinola, S. R., & Adesopo, A. (2011). Derivation principle dilemma and national (dis)unity in Nigeria: A polycentric planning perspective on the Niger Delta. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4, 251–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alamieyeseigha, D. (2005). Managing youth unrest in Nigeria: A holistic approach. Cape Town: New Africa Books.Google Scholar
  4. Alapiki, H., & Allen, F. (2010). Oil and democracy in Nigeria: Oiling the friction? In V. Ojakorotu (Ed.), Anatomy of the Niger Delta crisis: Causes, consequences and opportunities for peace (pp. 37–46). Münster: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, B. R. O. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (2nd Rev ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  6. Anele, K. A., & Nkpah, Y. (2013). Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and transformation agenda in Nigeria. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Anyanwu, J. C. (1997). Nigerian public finance. Onitsha: Joanee Educational Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. Ariye, E. C. (2013). The Ijo (Ijaw) people of Delta state: Their early history and aspects of social and cultural practices. Historical Research Letter, 8.Google Scholar
  9. Ashwe, C. (1986). Fiscal federalism in Nigeria. Canberra: Centre for Research on Federal Financial Relations, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  10. Barikor-Wiwa, D. (1997). The role of women in the struggle for environmental justice. Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, 21, 46. https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/role-women-struggle-environmental-justice-ogoni
  11. Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2012). The edge of violence: Towards telling the difference between violent and non-violent radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2011.594923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benatari, B. (1998). Ijaw history. United Ijaw. www.unitedijaw.com/people.htm. Accessed 13 May 2017.
  13. Bob, C. (2002). Political process theory and transnational movements: Dialectics of protest among Nigeria’s Ogoni minority. Social Problems, 49, 395–415.  https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2002.49.3.395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bob, C. (2015). The quest for international allies. In J. Goodwin & J. M. Jasper (Eds.), The social movements reader: Cases and concepts (3rd ed., pp. 325–334). Chichester/Malden: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Boro, I. (1982). The twelve-day revolution. Benin City: Idodo Umeh Publisher.Google Scholar
  16. Carter, J. (1999). A Letter Written to Ijaw Youth Council by former US President Jimmy Carter (Mimeo).Google Scholar
  17. Cayford, S. (1996). The Ogoni uprising: Oil, human rights, and a democratic alternative in Nigeria. Africa Today, 43, 183–198.Google Scholar
  18. Comfort, S. (2002). Struggle in Ogoniland: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the cultural politics of environmental justice. In J. Adamson, M. M. Evans, & R. Stein (Eds.), The environmental justice reader: Politics, poetics, & pedagogy (pp. 673–680). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cornelissen, S., Cheru, F., & Shaw, T. (2012). Introduction: Africa and international relations in the 21st century: Still challenging theory? In S. Cornelissen, F. Cheru, & T. Shaw (Eds.), Africa and international relations in the 21st century (pp. 1–17). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Darah, G. G. (1995, November 19). Dying for the Niger Delta. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  21. Dike, K. O. (1956). Trade and politics in the Niger Delta, 1830–1885: An introduction to the economic and political history of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ebeku, K. S. A. (2002). Oil and the Niger Delta people: The injustice of the Land Use Act. Verfassung und Recht in Übersee/Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 35, 201–231.Google Scholar
  23. Ejobowah, J. B. (2000). Who owns the oil? The politics of ethnicity in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Africa Today, 47, 28–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eni Agip Letter. 1999. Petrolio, Ambiente E Diritti Umani: Conference, Rome. A Letter Written to Oronto Douglas by the Eni Agip General Counsel (Mimeo).Google Scholar
  25. Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  26. Frynas, J. G. (2001). Corporate and state responses to antioil protests in the Niger Delta. African Affairs, 100, 27–54.  https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/100.398.27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gbomo, J. (2011, August 24). Nigeria is not a failed nation: Nigeria’s leaders have failed the nation. MEND replies [to] The Movement for New Nigeria. Sahara Reporters. http://saharareporters.com/2011/08/24/nigeria-not-failed-nation-nigeria%E2%80%99s-leaders-have-failed-nation-mend-replies-movement-new
  28. Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism: New perspectives on the past. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Gonzalez-Casanova, P. (1965). Internal colonialism and national development. Studies in Comparative International Development, 1, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grosby, S. E. (2005). Nationalism: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hechter, M. (1975). Internal colonialism: The Celtic fringe in British national development, 1536–1966. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  32. HRW. (1995). Nigeria: The Ogoni crisis. A case-study of military repression in Southeastern Nigeria. New York: Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1995/Nigeria.htm
  33. HRW. (1999). The price of oil: Corporate responsibility and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities (No. 1-56432-225-4). New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  34. Idemudia, U., & Ite, U. E. (2006). Demystifying the Niger Delta conflict: Towards an integrated explanation. Review of African Political Economy, 33, 391–406.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03056240601000762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ijaw Youth Council. (1999). We write you with Great urgency. A Letter Written to Former US President Jimmy Carter by the IYC (Mimeo).Google Scholar
  36. Irele, D. (1998). The public sphere and democracy. Ibadan: University of Ibadan.Google Scholar
  37. Isumonah, V. A. (2004). The making of the Ogoni ethnic group. Journal of the International African Institute, 74, 433–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kasfir, N. (1979). Explaining ethnic political participation. World Politics, 31, 365–388.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2009994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leis, P. E. (1964). Palm oil, illicit gin, and the moral order of the Ijaw. American Anthropologist, 66, 828–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. Kampala: James Currey.Google Scholar
  41. Marquardt, E. (2007). Mujahid Dokubo-Asari: The Niger Delta’s Ijaw leader. The Jamestown Foundation. https://jamestown.org/program/mujahid-dokubo-asari-the-niger-deltas-ijaw-leader-2/. Accessed 14 May 2017.
  42. Mitee, L. (1999). Oil, arms and terror: The Ogoni experience. Interventions, 1, 430–438.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13698019900510641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naanen, B. (1995). Oil-producing minorities and the restructuring of Nigerian federalism: The case of the Ogoni people. The Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 33, 46–78.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14662049508447695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nbete, A. D. (2006). The dynamics of internal colonialism in Ken Saro-Wiwa’s political theory. PhD thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  45. Nbete, A. D. (2012). Ogoni as an internal colony: A critique of imperialism. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(Special Issue), 50–61.Google Scholar
  46. Nixon, R. (1996). Pipe dreams: Ken Saro-Wiwa, environmental justice, and micro-minority rights. Black Renaissance, 1, 1–11. http://fliphtml5.com/ulyd/wscx
  47. Nwajiaku, K. (2005). Between discourse and reality: The politics of oil and Ijaw ethnic nationalism in the Niger Delta. Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, 45, 457–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Obi, C. I. (1997). Oil, environmental conflict and national security in Nigeria: Ramifications of the ecology–security nexus for sub-regional peace. Arms Control and Disarmament and International Security Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  49. Obi, C. I. (2006). Youth and the generational dimensions to struggles for resource control in the Niger Delta: Prospects for the nation-state project in Nigeria. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  50. Obi, C. (2007). The struggle for resource control in petro-states: A perspective from Nigeria. In J. Petras et al. (Eds.), National perspectives on globalization (p. XII, 220). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Obi, C. I. (2008, December 7–11). Is petroleum oiling or obstructing democratic struggles in Nigeria? Paper prepared for the CODESRIA 12th General Assembly, Yaoundé, Cameroon.Google Scholar
  52. Obi, C. I. (2009). Structuring transnational spaces of identity, rights and power in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Globalizations, 6, 467–481.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14747730903298785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Obi, C. I. (2012). Transnationalism, Africa’s ‘resource curse’ and ‘contested sovereignties’: The struggle for Nigeria’s Niger Delta. In S. Cornelissen, F. Cheru, & T. Shaw (Eds.), Africa and international relations in the 21st century (pp. 147–161). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oboreh, J. S. (2010). The origins and the causes of crisis in the Niger Delta: The way forward. In V. Ojakorotu (Ed.), Anatomy of the Niger Delta crisis: Causes, consequences and opportunities for peace (pp. 17–36). Münster: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  55. Obulor, I. (2009). The Nigerians and militia violence. Nigerian Journal of Oil and Politics, 2, 121–141.Google Scholar
  56. Okonta, I. (2008). When citizens revolt: Nigerian elites, big oil and the Ogoni struggle for self-determination. Trenton: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  57. Okorobia, M. A. (1999). A history of the underdevelopment of the Niger Delta. PhD thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  58. Omeje, K. C. (2006). High stakes and stakeholders: Oil conflict and security in Nigeria. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  59. Osaghae, E. E. (1995). The Ogoni uprising: Oil politics, minority agitation and the future of the Nigerian state. African Affairs, 94, 325–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Osaghae, E. E. (2008). Social movements and rights claims: The case of action groups in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 19, 189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-008-9061-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Osha, S. (2006). Birth of the Ogoni protest movement. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 4, 13–38.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021909606061746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Osha, S. (2007). Ken Saro-Wiwa’s shadow: Politics, nationalism and the Ogoni protest movement. London: Adonis & Abbey.Google Scholar
  63. Othman, S., & Williams, G. (1999). Politics, power and democracy in Nigeria. In J. Hyslop (Ed.), African democracy in the era of globalisation (pp. 15–71). Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Rapu, S. C. (2006). Tax assignment and revenue sharing in Nigeria: Challenges and options. Economic and Financial Review, 44, 1–44.Google Scholar
  65. Sagay, I. E. (2001, May 19). Nigeria: Federalism, the constitution and resource control. Speech delivered at the fourth sensitization programme organized by the Ibori Vanguard, Lagos. http://www.nigerdeltapeoplesworldcongress.org/articles/nigeria_federalism_.pdf
  66. Saro-Wiwa, K. (1992). Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni tragedy. London: Saros International Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Saro-Wiwa, K. (1993a). They are killing my people. The News (Mimeo).Google Scholar
  68. Saro-Wiwa, K. (1993b, February 8). We will defend our oil with our blood. Tell Magazine.Google Scholar
  69. Saro-Wiwa, K. (1995a). A month and a day: A detention diary. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  70. Saro-Wiwa, K. (1995b). A month and a day & letters. Banbury: Ayebia.Google Scholar
  71. Senewo, I. D. (2015). The Ogoni Bill of Rights (OBR): Extent of actualization 25 years later? The Extractive Industries and Society, 2, 664–670.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2015.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Snow, K. H. (2003). Ken Saro-Wiwa (1941–1995), Ogoni & the Pacification of the Tribes of the Lower Niger. Traprock Peace Center. http://www.grassrootspeace.org/africa/snow_saro-wiwa_082603.pdf
  73. Tam-George, A. (2010). Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni struggle and the aesthetics of spectacle. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée, 37, 297–310.Google Scholar
  74. The Guardian. (1999, March 29). The world is watching. The Guardian 49.Google Scholar
  75. Ukiwo, U. (2007). From ‘pirates’ to ‘militants’: A historical perspective on anti-state and anti-oil company mobilization among the Ijaw of Warri, Western Niger Delta. African Affairs, 106, 587–610.  https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adm057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Umukoro, N. (2011). The amnesty program and the quest for peace in the Niger Delta. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  77. Walls, D. S. (1978). Internal colony or internal periphery? A critique of current models and an alternative formulation. In H. M. Lewis, L. Johnson, & D. Askins (Eds.), Colonialism in modern America: The Appalachian case (pp. 319–349). Boone: The Appalachian Consortium Press.Google Scholar
  78. Watts, M. J. (1999). Petro-violence: Some thoughts on community, extraction and political ecology (Working Paper No. 99-1). Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  79. Watts, M. (2003). Development and governmentality. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 24, 6–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watts, M. J., & Ibaba, I. S. (2011). Turbulent oil: Conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta. African Security, 4, 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19392206.2011.563181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Whimster, S. (2003). The essential Weber. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Wimborne, N. (1991). Nigeria’s impoverished oil producers demand recognition. Reuter Library Report, Wires File. NEXIS News Library.Google Scholar
  83. World Bank. (1995). Defining an environmental development strategy for the Niger Delta. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Trust, Peace and Social RelationsCoventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations