The human condition is marked by multiple sources of ambiguity and uncertainty. A typical reaction to the resultant anxiety is to impose order through the use of narratives. However, different narratives order things differently. In public policy discourse, different narratives betray not only different goals and aspirations, but also cite different facts and interpret the same facts differently. Hence the job of narrative inquiry is to parse the competing narratives to understand the substantive contest over aspirations and facts.
KeywordsPublic policy discourse Ambiguity Uncertainty Facts Goals
- Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann. 1967. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
- Clifton, Denise. 2017. Twitter Bots Distorted the 2016 Election—Including Many Likely from Russia. Mother Jones, Oct 12. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/10/twitter-bots-distorted-the-2016-election-including-many-controlled-by-russia/. Accessed 15 Dec 2018.
- de Waal, Frans. 2009. The Age of Empathy: Nature’s Lessons for a Kinder Society. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
- Gorodnichenko, Yuriy, Tho Pham, and Oleksandr Talavera. 2018. Social Media, Sentiment and Public Opinions: Evidence from #Brexit and #USElection. NBER Working Paper. https://rahwebdav.swan.ac.uk/repec/pdf/WP2018-01.pdf. Accessed 15 Dec.
- Hajer, Maarten A. 1995. The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Ioannidis, John P.A. 2011. An Epidemic of False Claims. Scientific American, June 1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/an-epidemic-of-false-claims/. Accessed 30 Dec 2019.
- Jameson, Fredric. 1991. Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Joseph N. Cappella. 2008. Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Janosik, Robert J. 1987. Encyclopedia of the American Judicial System: Studies of the Principal Institutions and Processes of Law. New York: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
- Kessler, Glenn. 2018. Meet the Bottomless Pinocchio, a New Rating for a False Claim Repeated Over and Over Again. Washington Post, Dec 12. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2018/12/10/meet-bottomless-pinocchio-new-rating-false-claim-repeated-over-over-again/?utm_term=.4fba6544e76e. Accessed 12 Dec 2018.
- Lakoff, George. 2004. Don’t Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.Google Scholar
- Lyotard, Jean-François. 1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Merton, Robert K. 1957. Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Rini, Regina. 2019. Deepfakes Are Coming. We Can No Longer Believe What We See. New York Times, June 10. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/10/opinion/deepfake-pelosi-video.html?action=click&module=Opinion&pgtype=Homepage. Accessed 12 June 2019.
- Shane, Scott, and Sheera Frenkel. 2018. Russian 2016 Influence Operation Targeted African-Americans. New York Times, Dec 17. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/17/us/politics/russia-2016-influence-campaign.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage. Accessed 17 Dec 2017.
- Spicer, Michael W. 2019. Towards the Meridian: Albert Camus, Democracy, and Public Administration. Public Integrity 21 (4): 378–393. http://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2018.1522181. Accessed 17 Dec 2018.
- Tarde, Gabriel. 1903. The Laws of Imitation, trans. Elsie Clews Parsons. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
- Tarico, Valerie. 2018. You’ve Been Hacked: The Psychology of Disinformation and How to Protect Yourself. Alternet. https://www.alternet.org/youve-been-hacked-psychology-disinformation-and-how-protect-yourself. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
- Warraich, Haider. 2018. Dr. Google Is a Liar. New York Times, Dec 16. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/16/opinion/statin-side-effects-cancer.html. Accessed 17 Dec 2018.