Uses, Overuses, and Problems Associated with the Implantable Defibrillator

  • J. Anthony GomesEmail author


Since the invention of the internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the 1980s, there has been a marked increase in the rate of ICD implants, as data from secondary and primary prevention trials accumulated. The increase has mostly occurred for primary prevention ICDs which account for nearly 80% of all ICD implants in the USA. Over these three decades, we have learned much from long-term follow-up of patients with ICDs. This chapter discusses the current indications and contraindications of ICDs, survival of patients receiving a primary prevention ICD in clinical practice versus clinical trials, misuses of ICDs, and complications resulting from ICD use.


Internal cardioverter defibrillator New York Heart Association (NYHA) Sudden cardiac death (SCD) Ejection fraction (EF) Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Lead fractures Inappropriate shocks (IAS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Icahn School of MedicineMount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA

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