Cerebrovascular Disease

  • Marie Gerhard-HermanEmail author
  • Aaron Aday


Stroke affects 7 million adults in the U.S. (Virani et al., Circulation141:e139–e596, 2020). Cerebrovascular disease and strokes result when cerebral blood flow is diminished. The vast majority of strokes are ischemic, with up to 15% being hemorrhagic. Stroke is the third leading cause of disability worldwide (Feigin et al., Neuroepidemiology 45:161–176, 2015). Treatment of cerebrovascular disease extends from modifying risk factors to revascularization.


Stroke Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Carotid artery Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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