Syncope pp 61-68 | Cite as

Determining the Cause of TLOC/Collapse: The Initial Evaluation

  • Angel Moya
  • Patricia Fumero


The focus of this chapter is the concept, definition, clinical characteristics, etiology, and initial diagnostic evaluation of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC).

First, the clinical features that characterize TLOC are: amnesia of the episode, loss of motor control, absence of responsiveness, short and self-limited duration. The various etiologies of TLOC, are reviewed, including not only syncope but also non-syncopal causes, such as epilepsy, other neurological or metabolic causes, as well as psychogenic TLOC. Finally, the importance of the medical history in the diagnosis of TLOC is discussed, as well as its role in the differential diagnosis with syncope and among the different non-syncopal causes. In addition we provide an overview of clinical data obtained from clinical history that suggest different etiologies of TLOC.


Syncope Transient loss of consciousness Medical history 


Conflict of Interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angel Moya
    • 1
  • Patricia Fumero
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiology Department, Arrhythmia UnitHospital Universitari DexeusBarcelonaSpain

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