Self-Defense and Syndrome Testimony

  • Lenore E. WalkerEmail author
  • David Shapiro
  • Stephanie Akl


In Chap.  4 on criminal responsibility it was stated that some behaviors that might be considered a crime could be excused by reason of mental health or even justified by law. One type of justification is if the act occurred in self-defense.


  1. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. NY: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Dershowitz, A. (1994). The abuse excuse. NY: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  3. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.
  4. Hagen, M. A. (1997). Whores of the court: The fraud of psychiatric testimony and the rape of American justice. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  5. Millen, D. H., Kennedy, T. D., Black, R. A., Detullio, D., & Walker, L. E. (2019). Battered Woman Syndrome Questionnaire (BWSQ) subscales: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma. Retrieved from
  6. Shapiro, D. L., & Walker, L. E. A. (2019). Forensic practice for the mental health clinician. NY: TPI.Google Scholar
  7. Walker, L. E. A. (1989). Terrifying love: Why battered women kill and how society responds. NY: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  8. Walker, L. E. A. (2009). The battered woman syndrome (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Walker, L. E. A. (2017). The battered woman syndrome (4th ed.). NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Walker, L. E. A., & Conte, C. (2017). Women, domestic violence, and the criminal justice system: Traumatic Pathways. In C. Datchi & J. Ancis (Eds.), Gender, psychology and the justice system. NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenore E. Walker
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Shapiro
    • 2
  • Stephanie Akl
    • 3
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations