Reversible Watermarking for Protecting Patient’s Data Privacy Using an EPR-Generated QR Code

  • Alaa H. ElSaadawyEmail author
  • Ahmed S. ELSayed
  • M. N. Al-Berry
  • Mohamed Roushdy
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1153)


As a result of the modern communication technology and the transmission of medical images from one place to another, watermarking has become urgent to protect copyright, authentication and integrity of medical images and patient’s information. This paper proposes a solution to the authentication and integrity problems by proposing a fragile reversible watermarking scheme. The proposed scheme generates a Quick Response (QR) code from the patient’s data and uses it as a watermark hidden in the medical image. The proposed scheme resulted in an average Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of 51.25 dB for a payload of one bit per pixel (1 bpp), Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) of 0.99 and Mean Squared Error (MSE) of 0.488 indicating that the watermarked images obtained are of high visual quality.


Watermarking QR code Fragile Medical imaging Tamper detection 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alaa H. ElSaadawy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed S. ELSayed
    • 1
  • M. N. Al-Berry
    • 1
  • Mohamed Roushdy
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer and Information SciencesAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of Computers and Information TechnologyFuture University in EgyptNew CairoEgypt

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