Reverse Electrodialysis Cells
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In a closed system, reverse electrodialysis (RED) and electrodialysis (ED) can be coupled into an energy storage system where excess power can be placed in a salinity gradient between two solutions. The device is powered by applying an external power source to force ions from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through alternating ion exchange membranes. The current is discharged by allowing ions to move from the concentrated solution through the same membranes to dilute solutions, supplying electrical energy at the electrodes. Most literature claims have been developed using open real-world concentration gradients (seawater and freshwater), whereas a closed system may have a higher salt concentration (NaCl up to 6 M). A closed system also benefits from the absence of membrane fouling, and it is simpler to monitor and maintain the temperature. In this chapter, the closed reverse electrodialysis system is discussed.
The authors are grateful to the ENERSENSE programme and NTNU Team Hydrogen at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) for supporting and helping on this book project.
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