Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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Li-ion batteries have become the cornerstone of electrical energy storage in recent decades, resulting in a significant transition to hybrid and fully electric cars. Furthermore, the energy density of batteries, in general, has developed significantly from around 30 Wh kg−1 for lead-based batteries, up to over 200 Wh kg−1 for Li-ion batteries . Because of these significant increases in specific energy (as well as reductions in cost and improvements in durability), Li-ion-based batteries have already been implemented into small transport vehicles. Presently Li-ion batteries are being implemented into large-scale hybrid and electric vehicles , such as electric buses, hybrid electric buses and hybrid-powered ships , as bigger cells have become cost-effective. Because bigger cars use electricity, there is a need for bigger battery packs that can withstand more severe usage. To realise the full potential of Li-ion batteries, thermal management of their internal and external environments is required. To achieve this, small sensors (e.g. 10 μm thick), stable and inert are required. In this chapter, thermal management with regard to the structure of Li-ion batteries will be discussed, and how micro-optical sensors may facilitate improvements of the thermal management.
The authors are grateful to the ENERSENSE programme and NTNU Team Hydrogen at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) for supporting and helping on this book project.
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