Advertisement

Reference Systems

  • Dennis D. McCarthyEmail author
Chapter
  • 32 Downloads
Part of the Historical & Cultural Astronomy book series (HCA)

Abstract

A reference system, either terrestrial or celestial, is composed of (1) a specified origin, (2) the directions of fundamental axes, and (3) a set of conventional models, procedures, and constants used to realize the system. A reference frame is the realization of that system through a list of coordinates. Earth orientation describes the procedure, data and models used to relate a terrestrial reference system to a celestial reference system as a function of time.

References

  1. Altamimi, Z., Gross, R.S., 2017. Geodesy, in Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, pp. 1039-1061, Teunissen P.J., Montenbruck O. (ed.), Springer Handbooks, Springer, Cham, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42928-1_36
  2. Argelander, F. W.A., 1856. Anzeige von einer auf der Königlichen universitätssternwarte zu Bonn unternommenen durchmusterung des nördlichen himmeles als grundlage neuer himmelscharten, Bonn,: Gedruckt bei C. Georgi.Google Scholar
  3. Argelander, F. W.A., 1903. Bonner Durchmusterung des nördlichen Himmels … enhalten die Sternörter von −2 ̊bis + 90 ̊decl. für 1855.0, Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Weber.Google Scholar
  4. Arias, E.F., Feissel, M., and Lestrade, J.-F., 1988. An extragalactic celestial reference frame consistent with the BIH Terrestrial System, 1987. BIH Annual Rep. for 1987, D-113–D-121.Google Scholar
  5. Auwers, A., 1879, Fundamental Catalog fur die Zonen-Beobachtungen am Nordlichen Himmel., Publ. Astron. Gesellschaft XIV, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  6. Bakulin, P.I., 1949. Fundamental’nye katalogi zvezd. Tehniko-teoreticheskoj lit, Moskva-Leningrad, 17. Fundamental Star Catalogues. Translated from Russian into English by M.V. Carta, F.P.Scott and B.L.Klock, Washington, D.C., 1966.Google Scholar
  7. Boss, L., 1910. Preliminary general catalogue of 6188 stars for the epoch 1900, including those visible to the naked eye and other well-determined stars, Washington, D.C., Carnegie Institution of Washington.Google Scholar
  8. Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z., 1985. Towards an improved realization of the BIH terrestrial frame, The MERIT/COTES Report on Earth Rotation and Reference Frames, Vol. 2, Mueller, I. I. (ed.), OSU/DGS, Columbus, Ohio.Google Scholar
  9. Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z., Feissel, M., and Sillard, P., 1996. Results and analysis of the ITRF94, IERS Technical Note, 20, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, available at http://www.iers.org/TN20.Google Scholar
  10. Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z., and Sillard, P., 1998. Results and analysis of the ITRF96, IERS Technical Note, 24, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, available at http://www.iers.org/TN24.Google Scholar
  11. Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z., and Sillard, P., 1999. The 1997 International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF97), IERS Technical Note, 27, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, available at http://www.iers.org/TN27.Google Scholar
  12. Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z., Sillard, P., and Feissel-Vernier, M., 2004. The ITRF- 2000, IERS Technical Note, 31, Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie, available at http://www.iers.org/TN31.
  13. Chapront, J., Chapront-Touzé, M., and Francou, G., 2002. A new determination of lunar orbital parameters, precession constant and tidal acceleration from LLR measurements, Astron. Astrophys., 387(2), 700–709. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20020420.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Dieckvoss, W., Heckmann, O., 1975. AGK 3: star catalogue of positions and proper motions north of 2.5 deg. declination, derived from photographic plates taken at Bergedorf and Bonn in the years 1928-1932 and 1956-1963, Hamburg-Bergedorf: Hamburger Sternwarte.Google Scholar
  15. Dreyer, J.L.E., 1917. Tycho Brahe’s Catalogue of Stars, The Observatory, 40, 229–233.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Eichhorn, H., 1974. Astronomy of Star Positions. Ungar Publ. Co., New York.Google Scholar
  17. Fey A.L., Gordon, D., and Jacobs, C.S., (eds.), 2009. The Second Realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame by Very Long Baseline Interferometry, IERS Technical Note 35, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie, 204 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Fey, A.L., Ma, C., Arias, E.F., Charlot, P., Feissel-Vernier, M., Gontier, A.-M., Jacobs, C. S., Li, J., and MacMillan, D. S., 2004. The Second Extension of the International Celestial Reference Frame: ICRF-EXT.1, Astron. J., 127(6), 3587–3608. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1086/420998.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flamsteed, J., 1725. Historia Coelestis Brittanicae, Volumen Tertium, London: Meere.Google Scholar
  20. Folkner, W.M., Williams, J.G., and Boggs, D.H., 2009. The Planetary and Lunar Ephemeris DE 421, IPN Progress Report 42-178, August 15, 2009, 34 pp., see http://ipnpr.jpl.nasa.gov/progress report/42-178/178C.pdf.
  21. Fricke, W., Kopff, A., 1963. (in collaboration with W. Gliese, F.Gondolatsch, T.Lederle, H. Nowacki, W. Strobel and P.Stumpff), Fourth Fundamental Catalogue, FK4, Veroff Astron. Rechen-Institut, Heidelberg No. 10.Google Scholar
  22. Fricke, W., Schwan, H., Lederle, T., Bastian, U., Bien, R., Burkhardt, G.; Du Mont, B., Hering, R., Jährling, R., Jahreiß, H., Röser, S., Schwerdtfeger, H.-M.; Walter, H.G., 1988. Fifth fundamental catalogue, FK5, Part 1: The basic fundamental stars Veröffentlichungen Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Verlag G. Braun, Karlsruhe, No. 32, 1–106.Google Scholar
  23. Fricke, W., Schwan, H., Corbin, T., Bastian, U., Bien, R., Cole, C., Jackson, R., Jaehrling, R., Jahreiss, H., Lederle, T., Roeser, S., 1994. Fifth Fundamental Catalogue, (FK5) - Extension, VizieR Online Data Catalog.Google Scholar
  24. Gill, D., Kapteyn, J.C., 1993. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, Washington, D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Google Scholar
  25. Grasshof, G., 1990. The History of Ptolemy’s Catalogue, New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hazard, C., Sutton, J., Argue, A.N., Kenworthy, C.N., Morrison, L.V., and Murray, C. A., 1971. Accurate radio and optical positions of 3C273B, Nature Phys. Sci., 233, 89–91.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hevelius, J.,1690. Catalogus Stellarum Fixarum, Gdansk: Johann Stolle.Google Scholar
  28. Hoeg, E., Fabricius, C., Makarov, V.V., Urban, S., Corbin, T., Wycoff, G., Bastian, U., Schwekendiek, P., Wicenec, A., 2000. The Tycho-2 Catalogue of the 2.5 million brightest stars. Astron. Astrophys., 355, L27-L30.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. IAU 1982. Transactions of the IAU, Vol. XIX A Reports on Astronomy 1981–1984. Wayman, P.A. (ed.), Association of Univ. for Research in Astronomy ISBN 90–277–1423-1 2 Jan 1982.Google Scholar
  30. IAU 1992. XXIst General Assembly - Transactions of the IAU Vol. XXI B Proceedings of the 21st General Assembly Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 23–August 1, 1991. Bergeron, J. (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers ISBN 0–7923–1914-1.Google Scholar
  31. IAU 1998. XXIIIrd General Assembly - Transactions of the IAU Vol. XXIII B Proceings of the 23rd General Assembly Kyoto, Japan, August 18–30, 1997. Andersen, J. (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers ISBN 0–7923–5588-1 1 Jan 1999.Google Scholar
  32. IAU 2002. XXIVth General Assembly - Highlights of Astronomy Vol. 12 As presented at the XXIVth General Assembly of the IAU Manchester, UK, August 7–18, 2000. Rickman H. (ed.), ASP ISBN 1–58381–086-2 1 Jan 2002.Google Scholar
  33. IERS, 1999. International Earth Rotation Service Annual Report, Observatoire de Paris, Paris.Google Scholar
  34. ITRF, 2014. http://itrf.ign.fr/ITRF solutions/2014/.
  35. Kaplan, G.H., 2005. The IAU Resolutions on Astronomical Reference Systems, Time Scales, and Earth Rotation Models; Explanation and Implementation. U. S. Naval Observatory Circular 179. Washington: US Naval Observatory.Google Scholar
  36. Kaplan, G.H., Josties, F.J., Angerhofer, P.E., Johnston, K.J., and Spencer, J.H., 1982. Precise radio source positions from interferometric observations. Astron. J., 87(3), 570–576, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1086/113131.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kepler, J., 1627. Tabulae Rudolfinae, Gorlitz.Google Scholar
  38. Knobel, E.B., 1917, Ulugh Beg’s catalogue of stars, Washington: Carnegie Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Kopff, A., 1937. Dritter Fundamentalkatalog, (FK3) des Berliner Astronomischen Jahrbuchs. Teil I. Die Auwers-Sterne, Veroff. Astron. Rechen-Institut Berlin No. 54, 1937 Teil II.Die Zusatzsterne fur die Epoche 1950. Abhandl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys.Google Scholar
  40. Kunitzsch, P., 1986. The Star Catalogue Commonly Appended to the Alfonsine Tables. J. Hist. Astron., 27, 89–98.ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. La Caille, N. L. d., 1763. Coelum australe stelliferum. Paris: sumptibus Hipp. Lud. Guerin et Lud. Fr. Delatour.Google Scholar
  42. Ma, C., Feissel, M., 1997. Definition and Realization of the International Celestial Reference System by VLBI Astrometry of Extragalactic Objects. International Earth Rotation Service Tech. Note 23, Paris: Observatoire de Paris.Google Scholar
  43. McCarthy, D.D., 2019. The Development of Coordinated Universal Time. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, Reston, Virginia, January 2019, pp. 8–52.  https://doi.org/10.33012/2019.16772.
  44. Morrison, J.E., McLean, S.R., Bucciarelli, B., Lasker, B., 2001. The Guide Star Catalog, Version 1.2: An Astrometric Recalibration and Other Refinements. Astron. J., 121, 1752–1763.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nelson, R.A., McCarthy, D.D., Malys, S., Levine, J., Guinot, B., Fliegel, H.F., Beard, R.L., Bartholomew, T. R., 2001. The leap second: its history and possible future. Metrologia, 38, 509–529.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Perryman, M.A.C., Lindegren, L., Kovalevsky, J., Hog, E., Bastian, U., Bernacca, P.L., Creze, M., Donati, F., Grenon, M., Grewing, M., van Leeuwen, F., van der Marel, H., Mignard, F., Murray, C.A., Le Poole, R.S., Schrijver, H., Turon, C., Arenou, F., Froeschle, M., Petersen, C.S., 1997. The Hipparcos Catalogue. Astron. Astrophys., 323, L49-L52.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Peters, J., 1907. Neuer Fundamentalkatalog des Berliner Astronomischen Jahrbuchs nach den Grundlagen von A. Auwers. Veroff. Kgl. Astron. Rechen-Institut, Berlin No. 33.Google Scholar
  48. Petit, G., Luzum, B., (eds.), 2010. IERS Conventions, 2010, IERS Technical Note 36. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie, 179 pp., ISBN 3-89888-989-6.Google Scholar
  49. Piazzi, G., 1814. raecipuarum stellarum inerrantium positiones mediae ineunte saeculo XIX ex observationibus habitis in Specula panormitana ab anno 1792 ad annum 1813. Panormi, Berlin: Panormi, Regia topographia militari.Google Scholar
  50. Poulle, E., 1988. The Alfonsine Tables and Alfonso X of Castille. J. Hist. Astron., 19, 97–113.ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ptolemy, Toomer, G. J., 1984. Ptolemy’s Almagest. New York: Springer-Verlag.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  52. Roeser, S., Bastian, U., 1988. A new star catalogue of SAO type. Astron. Astrophys. Supplement Series, 74, 449–451.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Seidelmann, P.K., Kovalevsky, J., 2002. Application of the new concepts and definitions, ICRS, CIP and CEO in fundamental astronomy. Astron. Astrophys., 392, 341–351 DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20020931.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, H., 1976. Address to the 8th Precise Time and Time Interval meeting. December, 1976.Google Scholar
  55. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Staff, 1966. Star Catalog: Positions and Proper Motions of 258,997 Stars for the Epoch and Equinox of 1950.0.Google Scholar
  56. Soffel, M. 2000. Report of the Working Group ‘Relativity for Celesial Mechanics and Astrometry’. In Johnston, K.J., McCarthy, D.D., Luzum B.J., & Kaplan, G.H. (eds), Towards Models and Constants for sub-microarcsecond Astrometry. US Naval Observatory, Washington, 283.Google Scholar
  57. Souchay, J., Feissel-Vernier, M., (eds.), 2006. The International Celestial Reference System and Frame - ICRS Center Report for 2001-2004. IERS Technical Note; 34, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie, 137 pp., ISBN 3-89888-802-9.Google Scholar
  58. Standish, E.M., Newhall, XX, Williams, J.G., and Folkner, W.M., 1997. JPL Planetary and Lunar Ephemerides, Willmann-Bell Inc., Richmond, VA.Google Scholar
  59. Thome, J. M., 1993. Cordoba Durchmusterung. Washington, D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Google Scholar
  60. Transactions IAU 1954. The General Assembly, 4 September, Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, 8, 15–19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0251107X00031904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Transactions IAU, 1968. Vol. XIII B, Proc. 13th General Assembly, Prague, 1967 Perek L. (ed.), Dordrecht, Reidel, 181.Google Scholar
  62. Transactions IAU 1973. Transactions of the IAU, Vol. XV A Reports on Astronomy 1969-1972, de Jager C. (ed.), Association of Univ. for Research in Astronomy ISBN 90-277-0340-X 1 Jan 1973.Google Scholar
  63. Urban, S., Corbin, T. E., Wycoff, G.L., Martin, J.C., Jackson, E.S., Zacharias, M.I., Hall, D.M., 1998. The AC 2000: The Astrographic Catalogue on the System Defined by the HIPPARCOS Catalogue. Astron J. 115, 1212–1223.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Urban, S.E., Seidelmann, P.K., 2012 (eds.). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Mill Valley, Calif.: University Science Books.Google Scholar
  65. van Leeuwen, F., 2007. Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction. Astron. Astrophys, 474 653–664.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Verbunt, F., van Gent, R.H., 2010. Three editions of the star catalogue of Tycho Brahe. Astron Astrophys, 516, A28, 2010.Google Scholar
  67. Verbunt, F., van Gent, R.H., 2012. The star catalogues of Ptolemaios and Ulugh Beg. Astron Astrophys, 544 A31.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilkins, G. A. (ed.), 2000. Report on the third MERIT workshop and the MERIT-COTES joint meeting, Part 1, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 29–30 July and 3 August 1985. Scientific Technical Report STR 99/25, GeoForschungs- Zentrum Potsdam.Google Scholar
  69. Zerhouni, W., Capitaine, N., and Francou, G., 2008. The use of LLR observations, (1969–2006) for the determination of the celestial coordinates of the pole. In Capitaine, N. (ed.), Journées 2007 Systèmes de Référence Spatio-temporels, Observatoire de Paris, 123–124, http://syrte.obspm.fr/journees2007/index.php?page=proceedings.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Naval Observatory (Retired/Director)Washington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations