Improved DM-QIM Watermarking Scheme for PDF Document

  • Minoru KuribayashiEmail author
  • KokSheik Wong
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12022)


In any application of watermarking, the selection of feature vectors from a given multimedia content is important from the perspective of robustness and security. In the case of PDF document, the spaces between words and characters are commonly utilized for embedding watermark in the conventional schemes. Instead of modifying the space values directly, researchers proposed to manipulate the frequency components of the space values by using the quantization index modulation (QIM) watermarking method. The QIM method is further combined with dither modulation (DM) to enhance secrecy of watermark. In this paper, we improve the imperceptibility of watermarked PDF document by investigating into the DM operation. The proposed method selects the best secret key among some candidates which minimizes the degradation caused by embedding watermark. Information about the selected key is also embedded as side information so that the embedded watermark can be extracted without referring to the original PDF document. The degree of distortion caused by watermark embedding is quantitatively measured in our experiment. It is verified that the gain in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the proposed method is increased with the number of secret key candidates.


PDF document Watermark Dither modulation Quantization index modulation 



This research has been partially supported by the Kayamori Foundation of Information Science Advancement and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 19K22846.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Okayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Monash University MalaysiaSubang JayaMalaysia

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