Conclusion: Institutions Providing Witness to the Permanence of Condorcet’s Ideas, 1794 to Today

  • Olivier MartyEmail author
  • Ray J. Amirault
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Education book series (BRIEFSEDUCAT)


In this final chapter of this book, we present current trends in French higher education, including ComUE (“Communauté d’Universités et d’Établissements), ANR (“Agence Nationale de la Recherche”), HALSHS (“Hyper Archives en Ligne en Sciences Humaines et Sociales”) and national infrastructures serving a knowledge-based society. France’s three Grandes écoles are replaced in this new landscape, with its international—not national—boundaries, and we show the pertinence of the Condorcet philosophy of education within this new world colonized by virtual actors. Therefore, we stress in this closing chapter the importance of knowledge in any political revolution, as well as the relationship between education and power throughout history.


  1. Novacq. (2000). Le point de vue de la direction de l’Ecole. Bulletin de la Sabix, 26, 34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CIRNEFUniversity of RouenParisFrance
  2. 2.College of EducationIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA

Personalised recommendations