Reporting Excised Cancer Specimens

  • Sami ShoushaEmail author
Part of the In Clinical Practice book series (ICP)


This chapter deals with the final step in reporting the case after examining the sections, interpreting the results of the microscopic examination and making the final diagnosis upon which the post-operative management of the patient will depend. This will include confirming the diagnosis made on core biopsy, in DCIS deciding whether or not the excised specimen contain foci of micro- or true invasive carcinoma, deciding whether the tumour is completely excised or not, the presence or absence of lymph-vascular invasion and the state of the lymph nodes if these have been provided. Changes resulting from the administration of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy are presented and illustrated. The chapter also discusses multifocality, pseudo invasion and how to reach the correct diagnosis in some lesions which may resemble each other. Lastly the recent TNM classification is presented in details.


Micro-invasive carcinoma Pseudo-invasion Multi-focality Assessing tumour excision Lympho-vascular invasion Lymph node metastasis Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy Fibroadenoma Phyllodes tumour 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Imperial CollegeImperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK

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