Advertisement

What Do We Know About Wild Boar in Iberia?

  • Alberto Giménez-Anaya
  • C. Guillermo Bueno
  • Pedro Fernández-Llario
  • Carlos Fonseca
  • Ricardo García-González
  • Juan Herrero
  • Carlos Nores
  • Carme Rosell
Chapter
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

Wild boar is an important species throughout the Iberian Peninsula, and populations exist from sea level to elevations of >2000 m in high mountain environments, which reflects its incredible ability to adapt to a wide range of natural and cultural environments. To summarize the scientific and management knowledge on this species in Portugal and Spain, we reviewed 174 published and unpublished texts written since 1914. Research has progressed from descriptive studies toward applied ecology, which has focused on the problem that species poses to its environment. We identified six main fields of study interest and potential wild boar conflict: (i) the role of the species in natural and semi-natural ecosystems, (ii) agricultural damages, (iii) car accidents, (iv) disease transmission and reservoir, (v) hunt and control, and (vi) urban wild boars.

The ability of wild boar to adapt to and transform a wide variety of ecosystems has to be monitored carefully, particularly within the context of adaptive management in natural areas. The lack of a rapid response causes high social and economic costs, and the problem has worsened. The increase in the frequency of interactions between humans and wild boars underscores the importance of management actions that address not only the wild boar populations but also human behaviour and the avoidance of risk situations, e.g. urban wild boars and traffic collisions, which includes environmental education.

Keywords

Wildlife management Agricultural damages Car accidents Diseases Hunt Ecosystem engineer Protected areas Urban wild boars Culling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter is dedicated to Carlos Sáez Royuela, ‘Cartucho’ (Shotgun Shell), whose PhD thesis, the first on wild boar in Iberia, was a remarkable example and a source of inspiration to all of us. Our thanks go to the countless collaborators who helped us with our field and lab work, who were motivated by their interest in learning more about this fascinating species. Regional administrations and several scientific institutions contributed financing to local studies, exhibited interest towards the issues that we have studied, and helped to increase the understanding of the role of wild boar in Iberian ecosystems. Bruce MacWhirter reviewed the English.

References

  1. Abaigar T (1990) Características biológicas y ecológicas de una población de jabalíes (Sus scrofa L. 1758) en el SE Ibérico. PhD thesis, Universidad de Navarra, SpainGoogle Scholar
  2. Abáigar T (1992) Paramètres de la reproduction chez le sanglier (Sus scrofa) dans le sud-est de la Péninsule Iberique. Mammalia 56:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abáigar T (1993) Régimen alimentario del jabalí (Sus scrofa, L. 1758) en el sureste ibérico. Doñana Acta Vertebrata 20:35–48Google Scholar
  4. Abáigar T, Del Barrio G, Vericad JR (1994) Habitat preference of wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in a Mediterranean environment. Indirect evaluation by signs. Mammalia 58:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acevedo P, Vicente J, Höfle U, Cassinello J, Ruiz-Fons F, Gortázar C (2007) Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment. Epidemiol Infect 135:519–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arroyo Nombela JJ, Rodríguez Murcia C, Abáigar T, Vericad JR (1990) Cytogenetic analysis (GTG, CBG and NOR bands) of a wild boar population (Sus scrofa scrofa) with chromosomal polymorphism in the South-East of Spain. Genet Sel Evol 22:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballari SA, Barrios-García MN (2014) A review of wild boar Sus scrofa diet and factors affecting food selection in native and introduced ranges. Mammal Rev 44:124–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrett RH (1982) Habitat preferences of feral hogs, deer, and cattle on a Sierra foothill range. J Range Manag 35:342–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrios-Garcia MN, Ballari SA (2012) Impact of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in its introduced and native range: a review. Biol Invasions 14(11):2283–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertolero A (2007) Cens i distribució de la tortuga mediterrània a la serra de l’Albera. Departament de Medi Ambient i Habitatge, Barcelona. Unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  11. Bosch J, Peris S, Fonseca C, Martínez M, De la Torre A, Iglesias I, Muñoz MJ (2012) Distribution, abundance and density of the wild boar on the Iberian Peninsula, based on the CORINE program and hunting statistics. Folia Zool 61:138–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Braza F, Álvarez F (1989) Utilisation de l’habitat et organization sociale du sanglier (Sus scrofa L.) Doñana (Sud-Ouest de l’Espagne). Can J Zool 67:2047–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bueno CG (2011) Las perturbaciones del jabalí en los pastos alpinos del Pirineo Central: una aproximación multiescalar. PhD thesis, Universidad de Zaragoza, p 191. Zaragoza, SpainGoogle Scholar
  14. Bueno CG, Jiménez JJ (2014) Livestock grazing activities and wild boar rooting affect alpine earthworm communities in the Central Pyrenees (Spain). Appl Soil Ecol 83:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bueno CG, Alados CL, Gómez-García D, Barrio IC, García-González R (2009) Understanding the main factors in the extent and distribution of wild boar rooting on Alpine grasslands. J Zool 279:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bueno CG, Barrio IC, García-González R, Alados CL, Gómez-García D (2010) Does wild boar rooting affect livestock grazing areas in alpine grasslands? Eur J Wildl Res 56:765–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bueno CG, Barrio IC, García-González R, Alados CL, Gómez-García D (2011a) Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine Pyrenean grasslands. Pirineos 166:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bueno CG, Azorín J, Gómez-García D, Alados CL, Badía D (2013) Occurrence and intensity of wild boar disturbances, effects on the physical and chemical soil properties of alpine grasslands. Plant Soil 373(1–2):243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bugalho JF, Carvalho JC, Borges JF (1984) Situation du sanglier au Portugal Symp. Sur le sanglier du Cons. Intern. de la Chasse, 5–11 July, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Burrascano S, Giarrizzo E, Bonacquisti S, Copiz R, Del Vico E, Fagiani S, Mortelliti A, Blasi C (2014) Quantifying Sus scrofa rooting effects on the understorey of the deciduous broadleaf forests in Castelporziano Estate (Italy). Rendiconti Lincei 26:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burrascano S, Copiz R, Del Vico E, Fagiani S, Giarrizzo E, Mei M, Mortelliti A, Sabatini FM, Blasi C (2015) Wild boar rooting intensity determines shifts in understorey composition and functional traits. Community Ecol 16:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cabrera A (1914) Fauna ibérica. Mamíferos. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  23. Cahill S, Llimona F (2004) Demographics of a wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 population in a metropolitan park in Barcelona. Galemys 16:37–52Google Scholar
  24. Cahill S, Llimona F, Gracia J (2003) Spacing and nocturnal activity of wild boar Sus scrofa in a Mediterranean metropolitan park. Wildl Biol 9:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cahill S, Llimona F, Cabañeros L, Calomardo F (2012) The increasing dilemma of wild boar (Sus scrofa) habituation to urban areas: traits from Collserola Park (Barcelona) and comparison with this problem in other cities. Anim Biodivers Conserv 35(2):221–233Google Scholar
  26. Canut J (2006) Depredación. In: Afonso I, Aniz M, Arribas O, Canut J, Marty E, Mossoll M, Piqué J, Racionero C (eds) El lagópodo alpino (Lagopus muta pyrenaica) en el Parque Nacional de Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. OAPN. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 77–84Google Scholar
  27. Carpio AJ, Castro–López J, Guerrero–Casado J, Ruiz–Aizpurua L, Vicente J, Tortosa FS (2014a) Effect of wild ungulate density on invertebrates in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Anim Biodivers Conserv 37(2):115–125Google Scholar
  28. Carpio AJ, Guerrero-Casado J, Ruiz-Aizpurua L, Vicente J, Tortosa FS (2014b) The high abundance of wild ungulates in a Mediterranean region: is this compatible with the European rabbit? Wildl Biol 20(3):161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carpio AJ, Guerrero-Casado J, Tortosa FS, Vicente J (2014c) Predation of simulated red-legged partridge nests in big game estates from South Central Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 60:391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carranza J (2010) Ungulates and their management in Spain. In: Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman R (eds) Ungulate management in Europe in the XXI century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 419–440Google Scholar
  31. Casas-Díaz E, Peris A, Serrano E, Closa-Sebastià F, Torrentó J, Miño A, Casanovas R, Marco I, Lavín S (2011) Estima de la densidad de una población de jabalí (Sus scrofa) mediante trampeo fotográfico: estudio piloto en Cataluña. [Wild boar (Sus scrofa) density estimation by mark resighting: a pilot study in Catalonia]. Galemys Span J Mamm 23:99–104Google Scholar
  32. Colino V, Bosch J, Reoyo MJ, Peris S (2012) Influence of new irrigation croplands on wild boar (Sus scrofa) roadkills in NW Spain. Anim Biodivers Conserv 35(2):247–252Google Scholar
  33. Cuartas P (1987) Estructura social y reparto temporal de actividades del jabalí (Sus scrofa) en Doñana. BSc thesis, University of Oviedo, SpainGoogle Scholar
  34. Cuesta-Gerveno JM, Risco D, Gonçalves P, García-Jiménez W, Gil M, Fernandez-Llario P, Hermoso de Mendoza J, Gómez LJ (2013) Fatal infection due to Haemophilus parasuis in a young wild boar (Sus scrofa). J Vet Diagn Investig 25:297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Delgado R, Fernández-Llario P, Azevedo M, Beja-Pereira A, Santos P (2008) Paternity assessment in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) – Are littermates full-sibs? Mamm Biol 73(3):169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Delibes–Mateos M, Delibes A (2013) Pets becoming established in the wild: free–living Vietnamese potbel-lied pigs in Spain. Anim Biodivers Conserv 36(2):209–215Google Scholar
  37. Departament d’Agricultura, Ramaderia, Pesca i Alimentació (2016) Programa de seguiment de les poblacions de senglar (Sus scrofa) a Catalunya. Informe inédito elaborado por Minuartia, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Departament de Territori i Sostenibilitat (2015) Estudi de l’accidentalitat provocada per animals en llibertat a la xarxa de vies de carreteres de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Asistencia técnica Minuartia. Informe inédito, 69pp + Annexes and mapsGoogle Scholar
  39. Duarte J, Farfán MA, Vargas MJ (2012) Ungulados en las nuevas zonas urbanas de la Costa del Sol (Málaga). III Reunión sobre Ungulados Silvestres Ibéricos ‘Ungulados, biodiversidad y actividades humanas: gestión de conflictos’ 4-5 Octubre de 2012. Castelló d’Empúries (Girona)Google Scholar
  40. Engeman RM, Constantin BU, Schwiff SA, Smith HT, Woolard J, Allen J, Dunlap J (2007) Adaptive and economic management methods for feral hog control in Florida. Human - Wildlife Conflicts 1:178–185Google Scholar
  41. Fernández-Bou M, Rosell C, Giménez A, Guardiola M, Navàs F, Espelta JM (2006) Selecció d’hàbitats i efectes de l’activitat del senglar en prats del Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. En: La investigació al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. Setenes Jornades sobre Recerca al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. pp. 285–300. Departament de Medi Ambient i Habitatge, Lleida.Google Scholar
  42. Fernández-Bou M, Rosell C, Giménez-Anaya A, Guardiola M, Navàs F, Espelta JM (2006) La població de senglar (Sus scrofa) al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. 2006. VII Jornades sobre Recerca al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. Barruera, 25–27 de October 2006Google Scholar
  43. Fernández-Llario P (2004) Enviromental correlates of nest site selection by wild boar Sus scrofa. Acta Theriol 49:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fernández-Llario P (2005) The sexual function of wallowing in male wild boar (Sus scrofa). J Ethol 23:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fernández-Llario P, Mateos-Quesada P (1998) Body size and reproductive parameters in the wild boar Sus scrofa. Acta Theriol 43:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fernández-Llario P, Mateos-Quesada P (2003) Population structure of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in two Mediterranean habitats in the western Iberian Peninsula. Folia Zool 52:143–148Google Scholar
  47. Fernández-Llario P, Carranza J, Hidalgo De Trucios SJ (1996) Social organization of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Doñana National Park. Miscel·lània Zoològica 19:9–18Google Scholar
  48. Fernández-Llario P, Carranza J (2000) Reproductive performance of the wild boar in a Mediterranean ecosystem under drought conditions. Ethol. Ecol. Evol 12:335–343Google Scholar
  49. Fernández-Llario P, Mateos-Quesada P, Silvério A, Santos P (2003) Habitat effects and shooting techniques on two wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Spain and Portugal. Z Jagdwiss 49:120–129Google Scholar
  50. Fernández-Llario P, Mateos-Quesada P (2005) Influence of rainfall on the breeding biology of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Folia Zool 54:240–248Google Scholar
  51. Ferreira E, Souto L, Soares AM, Fonseca C (2009) Genetic structure of the wild boar population in Portugal: evidence of a recent bottleneck. Mamm Biol – Z Säugetierkd 74:274–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fillat F, García-González R, Gómez D, Reiné R (2008) Pastos del Pirineo. Departamento de Publicaciones del CSIC, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  53. Fonseca C (1996) Aspectos da Biologia de Javali (Sus scrofa L.). Relatório final de estágio científico. Departamento de Zoologia da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. Policopiado, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Fonseca C (1999) Ecologia do javali (Sus scrofa L, 1758) no Centro de Portugal. MSc thesis, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  55. Fonseca C (2004) Population dynamics and management of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in Central Portugal and South- Eastern Poland. PhD thesis, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  56. Fonseca C (2006) Gestão das populações de javali (Sus scrofa) e dos seus habitats. Gestão das populações cinegéticas e dos seus Habitats. Federação de caça e Pesca da Beira Litoral, Coimbra, Portugal, pp 109–126Google Scholar
  57. Fonseca C, Correia F (2008). O Javali. Colecção Património Natural Transmontano. João Azevedo Editor (1.ª Edição). Mirandela, 168 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Fonseca C, Herrero J, Luís A, Soares AMVM (2004a) Wild boar research 2002. A selection and edited papers from the 4th International wild boar symposium. Galemys 16 Special Issue, Málaga, SpainGoogle Scholar
  59. Fonseca C, Santos P, Monzón A, Bento P, Alves da Silva A, Alves J (2004b) Reproduction in the wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) populations of Portugal. Galemys 16:53–65Google Scholar
  60. Fonseca C, Cancela JH, Silva A, Vingada J, Soares AMVM (2008) Libro Perspectivas em Gestão de Fauna Selvagem Páginas 45–58 Editor Waves PortugalGoogle Scholar
  61. Fonseca C, Alves da Silva A, Alves J, Vingada J, Soares AMVM (2011) Reproductive performance of wild boar females in Portugal. Eur J Wildl Res 57:363–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. García-González R, Marinas A, Sanz G, Gómez D, Herrero J, Valadon A, Arthur CP (2003) Valoración del impacto de las hozaduras de jabalí en los pastos supraforestales del Parc National des Pyrénées. Tercer informe parcial Informe inédito. Parc National des Pyrénées (Tarbes, Francia) and Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, (CSIC), Jaca, SpainGoogle Scholar
  63. García-González AM, Pérez-Martín JE, Gamito-Santos JA, Calero-Bernal R, Alonso MA, Carrión EMF (2013) Epidemiologic study of lung parasites (Metastrongylus spp.) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Spain. J Wildl Dis 49:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. García-Jiménez WL, Fernández-Llario P, Benítez-Medina JM, Cerrato R, Cuesta J, García-Sánchez A, Gonçalves P, Martínez R, Risco D, Salguero FJ, Serrano E, Gómez L, Hermoso-de-Mendoza M (2013) Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: Effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain. Prev Vet Med 110:435–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. García-Jiménez WL, Cortés M, Benitez-Medina JM, Hurtado I, Martínez R, García-Sanchez A, Risco D, Cerrato R, Sanz C, Hermoso-de-Mendoza M (2016) Spoligotype diversity and 5-year trends of bovine tuberculosis in Extremadura, southern Spain. Trop Anim Health Prod:48(8):1533–1540Google Scholar
  66. García-Sánchez RN, Nogal-Ruiz JJ, Manzano-Lorenzo R, Díaz JMA, López GP, Ruano FJS, Casas AR, Bascn CC, Bols-Fernández F, Martínez-Fernández AR (2009) Trichinellosis survey in the wild boar from the Toledo mountains in south-western Spain (2007-2008): Molecular characterization of Trichinella isolates by ISSR-PCR. J Helminthol 83:117–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Garzón P (1991) Biología y ecología del jabalí (Sus scrofa L, 1758) en el Parque Natural de Monfragüe. PhD thesis, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  68. Garzón P, Palacios F, Ibáñez C (1983) Primeros datos sobre la alimentación del jabalí (Sus scrofa baeticus Thomas, 1912) en el Parque Nacional de Doñana. II Reunión Iberoamer Cons Zool Vert, Cáceres, Spain, pp 466–475Google Scholar
  69. Giménez-Anaya A, Herrero J, Rosell C, Couto S, García-Serrano A (2008) Food habits of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean coastal wetland. Wetlands 28:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Giménez-Anaya A, Herrero J, García-Serrano A, García-González R, Prada C (2016) Wild boar battues reduce crop damages in a protected area. Folia Zool 65(3):214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gómez JM, Hódar JA (2008) Wild boars (Sus scrofa) affect the recruitment rate and spatial distribution of holm oak (Quercus ilex). For Ecol Manag 256:1384–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gonçalves P (in prep.) Biological indicators of wild boar management in Mediterranean ecosystems. PhD ThesisGoogle Scholar
  73. Gonçalves P, Fernández-Llario P, Risco D, Gil M, Varela E, García-Jiménez WL, Cerrato R, Martínez R, Hermoso de Mendoza J, Mateos C (2013) Novel method to estimate wild boar populations based on food intake. VIII International Symposium on Wild Fauna. Book of abstracts. León, Spain, 2013Google Scholar
  74. González J, Herrero J, Prada C, Marco J (2013) Changes in wild ungulate populations in Aragon, Spain between 2001 and 2010. Galemys 25:51–57Google Scholar
  75. Gortázar C, Herrero J, Villafuerte R, Marco J (2000) Historical examination of the status of large mammals in Aragon, España. Mammalia 64:411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gortázar C, Acevedo P, Ruiz-Fons F, Vicente J (2006) Disease risks and overabundance of game species. Eur J Wildl Res 52:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Groves CP (1981) Ancestors for the pigs: taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Sus. Aust Natl Univ Dep Prehist Tech Bull 3:196Google Scholar
  78. Hermoso de Mendoza J, Parra A, Tato A, Alonso RJM, Peña J, García-Sánchez A, Larrasa J, Teixidó J, Manzano G, Cerrato R, Pereira G, Fernández-Llario P, Hermoso de Mendoza J (2006) Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992–2004). Prev Vet Med 74:239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Herrero J (2003) Adaptación funcional del jabalí Sus scrofa L. a un ecosistema forestal y a un sistema agrario intensivo en Aragón. Consejo de Protección de la Naturaleza de Aragón, Zaragoza, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  80. Herrero J, Irizar I, Laskurain A, García-Serrano A, García-González R (2005) Fruits and roots: wild boar foods during the cold season in the southwestern Pyrenees. Ital J Zool 72:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Herrero J, García-Serrano A, Couto S, Ortuño VM, García-González R (2006) Diet of wild boar Sus scrofa L. and crop damage in an intensive agroecosystem. Eur J Wildl Res 52:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Herrero J, García-Serrano A, García-González R (2008) Differences in reproductive and demographic parametres in two Iberian wild boar Sus scrofa L. populations. Acta Theriol 53(4):355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Irizar I, Laskurain NA, Herrero J (2004) Wild boar Frugivory in the Atlantic Basque Country. Galemys 16(N.S.):125–134Google Scholar
  84. Lagos L, Picos J, Valero E (2012) Temporal pattern of wild ungulate-related traffic accidents in northwest Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 58(4):661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Langbein J, Putman R, Pokorny B (2011) Traffic collisions involving deer and other ungulates in Europe and available measures for mitigation. In: Putman R, Apollonio M, Andersen R (eds) Ungulate management in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Reino Unido, pp 215–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lecomte T (2007) Causes, impact et gestion d’une surpopulation de sanglier á la réserve naturrelle des Mannevilles (Marais Vernier – EURE). Colloque Modalités de Gestion du Sanglier, Marzo de 2007Google Scholar
  87. Leránoz I (1983) Sobre la relación del jabalí (Sus scrofa L.) con la agricultura, en Navarra septentrional XV Congreso Internacional de Fauna Cinegética y Silvestre, Trujillo, Spain, pp 639–645Google Scholar
  88. Leránoz I, Castién E (1996) Evolución de la población del jabalí (Sus scrofa L., 1758) en Navarra (N península ibérica). Miscel·lània Zoològica 19:133–139Google Scholar
  89. Lopes F, Borges J (2004) Wild boar in Portugal. Galemys 16(special issue):243–251Google Scholar
  90. Malgalhaes C (1983) Javali (Notas de Biologia, idade e troféu). Direcção Geral das Florestas – Direcção de Serviços de Caça. Internal publication, Portugal, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Malo J, Suárez F, Díez F (2004) Can we mitigate animal-vehicle accidents using predictive models? J Appl Ecol 41:701–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Marco J, Herrero J, Escudero MA, Fernández-Arberas O, Ferreres J, García-Serrano A, Giménez-Anaya A, Labarta JL, Monrabal L, Prada C (2011) Veinte años de seguimiento poblacional de unguladosen Aragón. Pirineos 166:135–153Google Scholar
  93. Markina F (1998) Estudio de las poblaciones de corzo (Capreolus capreolus) y jabalí (Sus scrofa) y análisis de su explotación cinegética en el Territorio Histórico de Álava. PhD thesis, University of León, León, SpainGoogle Scholar
  94. Markina F (1999) Accidentes de carretera con ungulados cinegéticos en el territorio histórico de Álava. In: Asociación Técnica de Carreteras (ed) Fauna y Carreteras. Asociación Técnica de Carreteras, Madrid, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  95. Martínez-Rica JP (1980) Nuevos datos sobre conducta social del jabalí, en condiciones de semilibertad. Publicaciones del Centro Pirenaico de Biología Experimental 12:19–54Google Scholar
  96. Massei G, Kindberg J, Licoppe A, Gačić D, Šprem N, Kamler J, Baubet E, Hohmann U, Monaco A, Ozoliņš J, Cellina S, Podgórski T, Fonseca C, Markov N, Pokorny B, Rosell C, Náhlik A (2015) Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe. Pest Manag Sci 71(4):492–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Matilde E (2012) Contributions to the prediction of road-collision accidents with wild boar (Sus scrofa). MSc thesis, Universidade de Évora, Évora, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  98. Mayer JJ, Nelson EA, Wike LD (2000) Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area. Ecol Eng 15:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morais JLP (1979) Introduction to the wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) biology study in Portugal graduation report. Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  100. Muñoz A, Bonal R (2007) Rodents change acorn dispersal behaviour in response to ungulate presence. Oikos 116:1631–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Navarro-González N, Mentaberre G, Porrero CM, Serrano E, Mateos A, López-Martín JM, Lavín S, Domínguez L (2012) Effect of cattle on salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain. PLoS One 7:e51614PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Navarro-González N, Fernández-Llario P, Pérez-Martín JE, Mentaberre G, López-Martín J, Lavín S, Serrano E (2013) Supplemental feeding drives endoparasite infection in wild boar in Western Spain. Vet Parasitol 196:114–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Navàs F, Rosell C, Romero de Tejada S, Santaeufèmia X, de Dalmases I (2010) Does the presence of wild board in protected wetlands affect sensitive species?. In: 8th international symposium on wild boar and Other Suids. York, 1–4 de Septiembre de 2010Google Scholar
  104. Nores C (2010) Wid boar abundance and altitude. In: 8th international symposium on wild boar and other suids. Book of Abstracts. York (UK) 1–4 September 2010: 46Google Scholar
  105. Nores C (2013) Manual para la gestión de poblaciones de mamíferos. INDUROT-Universidad de Oviedo, Mieres, 88 ppGoogle Scholar
  106. Nores C, Fernández A, García E, Rodriquez R (1994) Informe sobre los daños del jabalí en el Principado de Asturias en 1993. Análisis de la variabilidad espacial del jabalí y su incidencia en las haciendas campesinas. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Urbanismo, Principado de Asturias and University of Oviedo, Oviedo. Unpublisehd report. Oviedo, SpainGoogle Scholar
  107. Nores C, González F, García P (1995) Wild boar distribution trends in the last two centuries: an example in Northern Spain. Ibex J Mt Ecol 3:137–140Google Scholar
  108. Nores C, Fernández A, Corral N (2000) Estimación de la población de jabalí (Sus scrofa) por recuento de grupos familiares. Naturalia Cantabricae 1:53–59Google Scholar
  109. Nores C, Rodríguez O, Segura A (2010) Wild boar counting on drives: testing a method. In: 8th international symposium on wild boar and other suids. Book of Abstracts. York (UK) 1–4 September 2010: 41Google Scholar
  110. Nores C, Martín A, Ballesteros F, Blanco JC, García-Serrano A, Herrero J, Palomero G (in prep.). Wild boar increase limits brown bear reproduction in the Cantabrian MountainsGoogle Scholar
  111. Oliver W, Leus K (2008) Sus scrofa. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2008: e.T41775A10559847Google Scholar
  112. Palacio S, Bueno CG, Azorin J, Maestro M, Gomez-Garcia D (2013) Wild-boar disturbance increases nutrient and C stores of geophytes in subalpine grasslands. Am J Bot 100:1790–1799Google Scholar
  113. Pérez-González J, Costa V, Santos P, Slate J, Carranza J, Fernández-Llario P, Zsolnai A, Monteiro NM, Anton IN, Buzgó J (2014) Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar. PLoS One 9:e115394PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pita M, Casas S, Herrero J, Prada C, García-Post R (2012) Game reserves in Spain: the public management of hunt. Forest Systems, 21(3):398–404Google Scholar
  115. Puigdefábregas J (1980) Observaciones sobre la hozadura del jabalí en ambiente forestal. Publicaciones del Centro Pirenaico de Biología Experimental 12:7–16Google Scholar
  116. Purroy FJ, Clevenger AP, Costa L, Saenz de Buruaga M (1988) Demografía de los grandes mamíferos (jabalí, corzo, ciervo, lobo y oso) de la Reserva Nacional de Caza de Riaño: análisis de la prelación e incidencia en la ganadería. Biología Ambiental, 1 pp. 375–387Google Scholar
  117. Putman R, Langbein J, Watson P, Gree P, Cahill S (2014) The management of urban populations of ungulates. In: Putman R, Apollonio M (eds) Behaviour and management of European ungulates. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, pp 148–177Google Scholar
  118. Risco D, Llario P, Velarde R, García W, Benítez J, García A, Bermejo F, Cortés M, Rey J, de Mendoza J (2011) Outbreak of swine erysipelas in a semi intensive wild boar farm in Spain. Transbound Emerg Dis 58(5):445–450Google Scholar
  119. Risco D, Fernández-Llario P, García-Jiménez WL, Gonçalves P, Cuesta JM et al (2013) Influence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections on bovine tuberculosis in wild boar populations. Transbound Emerg Dis 60:121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Risco D, Serrano E, Fernández-Llario P, Cuesta JM, Gonçalves P, García-Jiménez WL, Martínez R, Cerrato R, Velarde R, Gómez L (2014) Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar. PLoS One 9:e110123PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rodrigues P, Herrero J, García-Serrano A, Prada C, Giménez-Anaya A, Ayala R, Fernández-Arberas O, Fonseca C (2016) Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofa in Moncayo Nature Park, Spain. Pirineos 171:1–7Google Scholar
  122. Rodríguez Berrocal J, Zamora Lozano M, Aaedina Blanco M (1982) Hábitos alimenticios del jabalí: un condicionante para su explotación cinegética racional Arch. Zootaxa 31:149–154Google Scholar
  123. Rodríguez Campos S (2013) Epidemiología molecular de mycobacterium bovis y mycobacterium caprae en España. PhD thesis, Universidad Complutense de MadridGoogle Scholar
  124. Rodríguez-Morales B, Marey MF, Díaz-Varela ER (2012) Caracterización temporal de los accidentes de tráfico con corzo y jabalí en la provincia de Lugo. III Reunión sobre Ungulados Silvestres Ibéricos ‘Ungulados, biodiversidad y actividades humanas: gestión de conflictos’ 4-5 Octubre. Castelló d’Empúries (Girona)Google Scholar
  125. Rogers PM, Myers K (1980) Animal distribution, landscape classification and wildlife management, Coto Doñana, Spain. J Appl Ecol 17:545–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosell C (1998) Biologia i ecologia del senglar (Sus scrofa L, 1758) a dues poblacions del nordest ibèric. Aplicació a la gestió. PhD thesis, Departament de Biologia Animal Universitat de Barcelona, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosell C, Herrero J (2007) Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758. In: Palomo LJ, Gisbert J, Blanco JC (eds) Atlas y libro rojo de los mamíferos de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad-SECEM -SECEMU, Madrid, pp 348–351Google Scholar
  128. Rosell C, Carretero MA, Bassols E (1998) Seguimiento de la evolución demográfica del jabalí (Sus scrofa) y efectos del incremento de presión cinegética en el Parque Natural de la Zona Volcánica de la Garrotxa. Demografía del jabalí y presión de caza. Galemys 10:59–73Google Scholar
  129. Rosell C, Fernández-Llario P, Herrero J (2001) El jabalí (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758). Galemys 13:1–26Google Scholar
  130. Rosell C, Navàs F, Romero S, De Dalmases I (2004) Activity patterns and social organization of wild boar (sus scrofa, l.) in a wetland environment. preliminary data on the effects of shooting individuals. Galemys 16:153–162Google Scholar
  131. Rosell C, Fernández Bou M, Giménez-Anaya A, Guardiola M, Navàs F, Espelta JM (2006) Seasonal variation in habitat use of wild boar in Pyrenean National Park. In: 6th international symposium on wild boar (Sus scrofa) and on sub-order suiformes. Monastery of Kykkos, Chipre, 25–28 October, 2006Google Scholar
  132. Rosell C, Navàs F, Casanovas R (2007) Wild boar monitoring program in Catalonia (NE Spain). A basis for adaptive management. International Union of Game Biologists. XVIII Congreso. Uppsala, Suecia, 13–18 August 2007Google Scholar
  133. Rosell C, Navàs F, Fernández-Pou M, Carol Q (2008) Wild boar-vehicle collisions. Spatial and temporal patterns and measures for the mitigation of the conflict. In: 7th international symposium on wild boar (Sus scrofa) and on Sub-order Suiformes. Sopron, Hungary 28–30 August de 2008Google Scholar
  134. Rosell C, Navàs F, Carol J, Fernández M, Romero de Tejada S (2010) Use of fauna passages by wild boar: some change is observed. In: 8th international symposium on wild boar and other Suids. York, 1–4 September 2010Google Scholar
  135. Rosell C, Navàs F, Romero S (2012) Reproduction of wild boar in a cropland and coastal wetland area: implications for management. Anim Biodivers Conserv 35:209–217Google Scholar
  136. Rosell C, Fernández-Bou M, Camps F, Boronat C, Navàs F, Martínez M, Sorolla A (2013) Animal-vehicle collisions: a new cooperative strategy is needed to reduce the conflict. In: Proceedings ICOET 2013 international conference on ecology and transportation. Scottsdale, Arizona, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  137. Rosell C, Muñoz A, Navàs F, Fernández-Bou M, Sunyer P, Bonal R, Espelta JM (2016) Principals resultats del projecte “Impactboar” de seguiment de l’activitat del senglar al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici. In: X Jornades sobre Recerca al Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Mauric. Departament de Territori i Sostenibilitat – Parc Nacional d’Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici, pp 209–218Google Scholar
  138. Ruiz-Fons F, Vicente J, Vidal D, Höfle U, Villanúa D, Gauss C, Segalés J, Almería S, Montoro V, Gortázar C (2006) Seroprevalence of six reproductive pathogens in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: the effect on wild boar female reproductive performance. Theriogenology 65:731–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sáenz de Buruaga M (1987) Evolución de las áreas de distribución de corzo, ciervo y jabalí en la Montaña Leonesa. Actas de las Jornadas de Estudios sobre la Montaña, Urz, León, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  140. Sáenz De Buruaga M (1995) Alimentación del jabalí (Sus scrofa) en el norte de España. Ecología 9:367–386Google Scholar
  141. Sáenz de Buruaga M, Costa L, Purroy F (1987) Distribution and abundance of three wild ungulates in the Cantabrian Mountains. 18 Congres of the IUGB, Cracovia, Poland, pp 627–630Google Scholar
  142. Sáenz de Santamaria A, Tellería JL (2015) Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 61:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sáez-Royuela C (1989) Biología y Ecología del jabalí (Sus scrofa). PhD thesis collection, INIA 78. Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  144. Saez–Royuela C, Telleria JL (1986) The increased population of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa L.) in Europe. Mammal Rev 16:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Saez–Royuela C, Telleria JL (1987) Reproductive trends of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Spain. Folia Zool 36:21–25Google Scholar
  146. Saez–Royuela C, Telleria JL (1988) Las batidas como método de censo en especies de caza mayor: aplicación al caso del jabalí (Sus scrofa L.) en la provincia de Burgos (Norte de España). Doñana. Acta Vertebrata 15:215–223Google Scholar
  147. Santaeufèmia FX (2008) Estat actual de les orquídies del Remolar-Filipines. Consorci per a la Protecció i Gestió dels Espais Protegits del delta del Llobregat. Unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  148. Santos P (1994) Interacção entre o javali, Sus scrofa L. 1758, e a perdiz-vermelha, Alectoris rufa (L.) 1758: dinâmica populacional e ordenamento cinegético. University of Évora, Évora, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  149. Santos P, Mexía-de-Almeida L, Petrucci-Fonseca F (2004) Habitat selection by wild boar Sus scrofa L. In Alentejo, Portugal. Galemys 16(Special Issue):167–184Google Scholar
  150. Santos N, Correia-Neves M, Ghebremichael S, Källenius G, Svenson SB, Almeida V (2009) Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Portugal. J Wildl Dis 45:1048–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sarmento P, Cruz J, Fonseca C, Eira C (2010) Occupancy of wild boars in a non-hunting area. A camera trapping approach. Booklet of the 8th international symposium on wild boar and other Suids, York, UKGoogle Scholar
  152. Serôdio HM (1985) Alguns aspectos da Biologia do Javali (Sus scrofa L., 1758) em Portugal. Relatório de estágio. Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa. 257 ppGoogle Scholar
  153. Sforzi A, Tonini L (2004) Le catture di cinghiali nel Parco Regionale della Maremma: risultati, riflessioni critiche e spunti gestionali. Comunicación presentada al “Seminario tecnico sulle catture di cinghiale nelle aree protette”. Badia Prataglia, Italy, 18–19 Novembre 2004Google Scholar
  154. Stillfried M, Fickel J, Börner K, Wittstatt U, Heddergott M, Ortmann S, Kramer-Schadt S, Frantz AC (2016) Do cities represent sources, sinks or isolated islands for urban wild boar population structure? J Appl Ecol 54(1):272–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tellería JL, Sáez-Royuela C (1984) The large mammals of central Spain. Mammal Rev 14:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tellería JL, Sáez-Royuela C (1985) L’évolution démographique du sanglier (Sus scrofa) en Espagne. Mammalia 49:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tellería JL, Sáez-Royuela C (1986) El uso de la frecuencia en el estudio de la abundanciade grandes mamíferos. Acta Oecologica Oecologia Applicata 7:69–75Google Scholar
  158. Tolon V (2010) Impacts of refuges on wild boar – hunters spatial interactions and wild boar mortality. In: Oral communication. 8th international symposium on wild boar (Sus scrofa) and on Sub-order Suiformes. York, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  159. Torrellas M (2015) Ungulate-vehicle collisions in Catalonia: Identifying the main landscape and road-related variables describing the most hazardous road locations. Màster d’Ecologia Terrestre i Gestió de la Biodiversitat. Especialitat en Ecologia Terrestre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  160. Torrellas M, Rosell C, Fernández-Bou C, Andrášik R, Sedoník J, Bíl M, Camps F, Seiler A, Rodà F (2016) Main landscape and road-related variables describing ungulate-vehicle collisions hazardous locations in Catalonia. IENE International Conference 2016 (accepted comunication)Google Scholar
  161. Turchin P (2003) Complex population dynamics: a theoretical/empirical synthesis. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 456 ppGoogle Scholar
  162. Uzal A, Nores C (2004) Endogenous and exogenous constraints in the population changes of wild board (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758). Galemys 16(Special issue):83–98Google Scholar
  163. Valet G, Rosell C, Chayron L, Fosty P, Spitz F (1994) Regime alimentaire automnal du sanglier (Sus scrofa) en Ariege, France, et en Catalogne, Espagne. Gibier Faune Sauvage 11:313–326Google Scholar
  164. Venero JL (1984) Dieta de los grandes fitófagos silvestres del Parque Nacional de Doñana. Doñana. Acta Vertebrata 2:19–130Google Scholar
  165. Venero JL (1983) Gregarismo del jabalí (Sus scrofa) en el Parque Nacional de Doñana, España. XVº Cong Int Fau Cineg Silv 1:331–339 Trujillo (Cáceres).Google Scholar
  166. Vericad JR (1971) Estudio faunístico y biológico de los mamíferos del Pirineo. Publicaciones del Centro Pirenaico de Biología ExperimentalGoogle Scholar
  167. Vericad JR (1983) Estimación de la edad fetal y períodos de concepción y parto del jabali (Sus scrofa L.) en los Pirineos occidental Proceedings of the IUGB XV congress, Trujillo, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  168. Vicente J, León-Vizcaíno L, Gortázar C, Cubero MJ, González M, Martín-Atance P (2002) Antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in European wild boars from southcentral Spain. J Wildl Dis 38:649–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Vieira-Pinto M, Alberto J, Aranha J, Serejo J, Canto A, Cunha MV, Botelho A (2011) Combined evaluation of bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Central-East Portugal. Eur J Wildl Res 57:1189–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Vingada J, Fonseca C, Cancela J, Ferreira J, Eira C (2010) Ungulates and their management in Portugal. In: Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman RJ (eds) European ungulates and their management in the 21st century. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Giménez-Anaya
    • 1
  • C. Guillermo Bueno
    • 2
  • Pedro Fernández-Llario
    • 3
  • Carlos Fonseca
    • 4
  • Ricardo García-González
    • 5
  • Juan Herrero
    • 1
  • Carlos Nores
    • 6
  • Carme Rosell
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Area of Ecology, Department of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, Technical SchoolUniversity of ZaragozaHuescaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Department of BotanyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Innovación en Gestión de Ungulados SLCáceresSpain
  4. 4.CESAM and Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade de AveiroAveiroPortugal
  5. 5.Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (CSIC)JacaSpain
  6. 6.INDUROT, University of OviedoOviedoSpain
  7. 7.Animal Biology DepartmentUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.MinuartiaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations