• Peter ScholtenEmail author
Part of the Global Diversities book series (GLODIV)


The concept of alienation has its roots in the critical tradition. In this perspective, political alienation is all about inequalities. Translated to inequalities in terms of policy processes, this means the introduction of the selective mobilization of biases in policy processes. Several of such selective mobilization of biases were discussed in this chapter, including a bias concerning migrant groups and organizations, organized interests (client politics), and gender. Furthermore, it was discussed how patterns of politicization and depoliticization can promote or mitigate such mobilization of biases. Depoliticization can reinforce selective mobilization around organized interests, whereas politicization (such as driven by the rise of populism) can generate a policy dynamic whereby migration and diversity become issues of symbolic politics.


  1. Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (1991). Agenda dynamics and policy subsystems. Journal of Politics, 53(4), 1044–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birkland, T. A. (1998). Focusing events, mobilization, and agenda setting. Journal of Public Policy, 18(1), 53–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brug, W. V. d., D’Amato, G., Ruedin, D., & Berkhout, J. (2015). The politicisation of migration. Abingdon/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Angelo, A. (2015). Migrant organisations: Embodied community capital? In L. Ryan, et al. (Eds.), Migrant capital (pp. 83–101). London: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eggert, N., & Pilati, K. (2014). Networks and political engagement of migrant organisations in five European cities. European Journal of Political Research, 53(4), 858–875.Google Scholar
  6. Freeman, G. (1995). Modes of immigration politics in liberal democratic states. International Migration Review, 29(4), 881–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Freeman, G. (2002). Winners and losers: Politics and the costs and benefits of migration. In A. M. Messina (Ed.), West European immigration and immigrant policy in the new century (pp. 77–96). London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  8. Freeman, G., & Birrell, B. (2001). Divergent paths of immigration politics in the United States and Australia.Google Scholar
  9. Geddes, A., & Scholten, P. (2016). The politics of migration and immigration in Europe. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gidron, N., & Bonikowski, B. (2013). Varieties of populism: Literature review and research agenda. Weatherhead Working Paper Series, No. 13–0004.Google Scholar
  11. Guiraudon, V. (1997). Policy change behind gilded doors: Explaining the evolution of aliens’ rights in France, Germany and the Netherlands, 1974–94. New Haven: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Guiraudon, V. (2000). The role of courts and bureaucracies in furthering migrants’ social rights. In M. Bommes, & A. Geddes (Eds.), Immigration and welfare: Challenging the borders of the welfare state (Vol. 1, pp. 72–89). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Guiraudon, V., & Lahav, G. (Eds.). (2006). Immigration policy in Europe: The politics of control. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Hansen, R. (2000). Citizenship and immigration in post-war Britain: The institutional origins of a multicultural nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Heelsum, A. V. (2002). The relationship between political participation and civic community of migrants in the Netherlands. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 3(2), 179–200.Google Scholar
  16. Hollifield, J. (1998). Migration, trade, and the nation-state: The myth of globalization. UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, 3, 595–636.Google Scholar
  17. Hollifield, J., Hunt, V., & Tichenor, D. (2008). The liberal paradox: Immigrants, markets and rights in the United States. SMU Law Review, 61(7), 67–98.Google Scholar
  18. Hunter, A., & Boswell, C. (2015). Comparing the political functions of independent commissions: The case of UK migrant integration policy. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 17(1), 10–25.Google Scholar
  19. Ireland, P. (1994). The policy challenge of ethnic diversity: Immigrant politics in France and Switzerland. London: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs, D., & Tillie, J. (2004). Introduction: Social capital and political integration of migrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(3), 419–427.Google Scholar
  21. Jones, B. D., & Baumgartner, F. R. (2005). The politics of attention: How government prioritizes problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Joppke, C. (1998a). Challenge to the nation-state. Immigration in Western Europe and the United States. Recherche, 67, 02.Google Scholar
  23. Joppke, C. (1998b). Why liberal states accept unwanted immigration. World Politics, 50(02), 266–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Joppke, C., & Guiraudon, V. (2003). Controlling a new migration world. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Kahmann, M. (2002). Trade unions and migrant workers: Examples from the United States, South Africa and Spain. Brussels: European Trade Union Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Kemp, A., Raijman, R., & Resnik, J. (2000). Contesting the limits of political participation: Latinos and black African migrant workers in Israel. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(1), 94–119.Google Scholar
  27. Kingdon, J. W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (Vol. 2). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  28. Kofman, E., Phizacklea, A., Raghuram, P., & Sales, R. (2000). Gender and international migration in Europe: Employment, welfare and politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Koopmans, R. (2004). Migrant mobilisation and political opportunities: Variation among German cities and a comparison with the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(3), 449–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kymlicka, W. (2015). Solidarity in diverse societies: Beyond neoliberal multiculturalism and welfare chauvinism. Comparative Migration Studies, 3(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lahav, G., & Guiraudon, V. (2006). Actors and venues in immigration control: Closing the gap between political demands and policy outcomes. West European Politics, 29(2), 201–223.Google Scholar
  32. Lefebvre, S., & Brodeur, P. (2017). Public commissions on cultural and religious diversity. Volume I: Analysis, Reception and Challenges. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Lucassen, L., & Penninx, R. (2009). Caught between Scylla and Charybdis? Changing orientations of migrant organisations in the era of national states, from 1880 onwards.Google Scholar
  34. Martiniello, M. (2005). Political participation, mobilisation and representation of immigrants and their offspring in Europe. In R. Baubock (Ed.), Migration and citizenship (pp. 83–105). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morales, L., & Giugni, M. (2016). Social capital, political participation and migration in Europe: Making multicultural democracy work? Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Mudde, C. (2007). Populist radical right parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mudde, C. (2013). Three decades of populist radical right parties in Western Europe: So what? European Journal of Political Research, 52(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mudde, C. (2018). Three decades of populist radical right parties in Western Europe: So what? European Journal of Political Research, 52(1), 1–19. Scholar
  39. Penninx, R., & Roosblad, J. (2002). Trade unions, immigration, and immigrants in Europe, 1960–1993: A comparative study of the attitudes and actions of trade unions in seven West European. Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  40. Pilati, K., & Morales, L. (2016). Ethnic and immigrant politics vs. mainstream politics: The role of ethnic organizations in shaping the political participation of immigrant-origin individuals in Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(15), 2796–2817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sabatier, P. A. (1988). An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein. Policy Sciences, 21(2), 129–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sabatier, P. A. (1991). Toward better theories of the policy process. PS: Political Science and Politics, 24(2), 147–156.Google Scholar
  43. Schattschneider, E. E. (1960). The semisovereign people: A realist’s view of democracy in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  44. Schneider, J. (2009). Modernes regieren und konsens. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  45. Schneider, J., & Scholten, P. (2015). Consultative commissions and the rethinking of integration policies in the Netherlands and Germany: The Blok Commission and the Süssmuth Commission. In P. W. A. Scholten, H. Entzinger, M. J. A. Penninx, & S. Verbeek (Eds.), Research-policy dialogues on migrant integration in Europe (IMISCOE book series) (pp. 77–98). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Schnyder, M. (2016). The representation of migrant and refugee interests by European umbrella organisations: Evidence of strain?Google Scholar
  47. Scholten, P. (2009). The coproduction of immigrant integration policy and research in the Netherlands: The case of the Scientific Council for Government Policy. Science and Public Policy, 36(7), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scholten, P. (2011). Framing immigrant integration: Dutch research-policy dialogues in comparative perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schrover, M., & Moloney, D. (2014). Gender, migration and categorisation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Schrover, M., & Schinkel, W. (2015). The language of inclusion and exclusion in immigration and integration. Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Schrover, M., & Vermeulen, F. (2005). Immigrant organisations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(5), 823–832.Google Scholar
  52. Shapiro, M., & Stone, A. (1994). The new constitutional politics of Europe. Comparative Political Studies, 26(4), 397–420.Google Scholar
  53. Statham, P., & Geddes, A. (2006). Elites and the ‘organised public’: Who drives British immigration politics and in which direction? West European Politics, 29(2), 248–269.Google Scholar
  54. Wilson, J. (1980). The politics of regulation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Erasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations