The Production of ‘Radicals’: ‘Steadfast Warriors’ in the Netherlands

  • Martijn de KoningEmail author
  • Carmen Becker
  • Ineke Roex


In this chapter we discuss one event, the so-called Battle of Hondius and one person, Abu Muhammed, to analyse how new modes of care of the self, new subjectivities, were created (and in the end collapsed) in and through the interaction with media and the Dutch state. We show that the activists viewed themselves as being in the midst of a hostile world supposedly engaged in a war against Islam. Both local and global political contexts but also the incarceration of their friends triggered a reflection among people to such an extent that it produced a sense of something needs to be done. And a better alternative was available for them in their vision of Islam which for some came true in Syria.


  1. Bracke, Sarah. 2011. Subjects of debate: Secular and sexual exceptionalism, and Muslim women in the Netherlands. Feminist Review 98: 28–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. De Koning, Martijn. 2008. Zoeken naar een ‘zuivere’ Islam. Religieuze identiteit en religieuze beleving bij jonge Marokkaans-Nederlandse moslims in Gouda. Amsterdam: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2020. Reaching the land of jihad. Contemporary Islam. Submitted.Google Scholar
  4. Demetriou, Olga. 2016. Counter-conduct and the everyday: Anthropological engagements with philosophy. Global Society 30: 218–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goodwin, Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta, eds. 2001. Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Koopmans, Ruud. 2015. Religious fundamentalism and hostility against out-groups: A comparison of Muslims and Christians in Western Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41: 33–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mavelli, Luca. 2013. Between normalisation and exception: The securitisation of Islam and the construction of the secular subject. Millennium – Journal of International Studies 41: 159–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Melucci, Alberto. 1996. Challenging codes: Collective action in the information age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Munro, Iain. 2014. Organizational ethics and Foucault’s ‘art of living’: Lessons from social movement organizations. Organization Studies 35: 1127–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Polletta, Francesco, and James M. Jasper. 2001. Collective identity and social movements. Annual Review of Sociology 27: 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Snow, David A., E. Burke Rochford, Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford. 1986. Frame alignment processes, micromobilization and movement participation. American Sociological Review 51: 546–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tarrow, Sidney. 2011. Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. 3rd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Leibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany
  3. 3.NTA ConsultancyAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations