- 7 Downloads
This chapter provides an appraisal of policy options in terms of the welfare economics of policy analysis. The role of technological change as necessitating changes in the law per se is critiqued with reference to the views of the originators of the much used concept of ‘disruptive innovation’. A variety of evidence is considered from those who claim current law is inefficient and requires a change to suitably accommodate the challenges of new technology. This evidence draws on academic legal papers, interview studies with practitioners in the field, and the two econometric papers concerned with the impact of the ‘Grand Upright’ and ‘Bridgeport’ decisionson the use of samples and the creativity with which they are used. The limitations of the whosampled.com data base used in these studies are highlighted. We move on to consider the case for radical ‘free for all’ approaches to policy on musical plagiarism. To this end, the work of digital libertarians Boldrin and Levine is expounded. Differences in the legal treatment of musical plagiarism, in different territories, are outlined. The chapter concludes with an in-depth case study of one particular recording—‘Bittersweet Symphony’ by The Verve and the provision of some discussion questions to stimulate further debate.
KeywordsInternational comparisons Digital libertarians Disruptive innovation
- Badia, E. J. (2017). Split Chords: Addressing the Federal Circuit Split in Music Sampling Copyright Infringement Cases. Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, 7(1), 131–192.Google Scholar
- Boldrin, M., & Levine, D. K. (2008). Against Intellectual Monopoly. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Broussard, W. G. (1991). Current and Suggested Business Practices for the Licensing of Digital Samples. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, 11(2), 479–503.Google Scholar
- Cameron, S. (2015): Music in the marketplace: A social economics approach. Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ceulemans, C., & Lowe, S. (2018). The Cost of Creation: Technology, Sampling and Lawsuits in Hip-Hop Music. Working Paper. Purchase College. State University of New York.Google Scholar
- Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R. (2015). What Is Disruptive Innovation? Harvard Business Review, 93(12), 44–53.Google Scholar
- Cook, N., & Sapp, C. (2007). Purely Coincidental? Joyce Hatto and Chopin’s Mazurkas. Available on CHARM Website. Retrieved September 13, 2019, from https://www.charm.kcl.ac.uk/projects/p2_3_2.html.
- Devadiga. (2018). Without “Vulture” Capitalists, Our Economy Would Rot. Their role isn’t pretty, but it’s vital. Foundation for Economic Education. Retrieved September, 11, 2019, from https://fee.org/articles/without-vulture-capitalists-our-economy-would-rot/.
- Duchen, J. (2007). Joyce Hatto: Notes on a Scandal. The Independent: Online Edition. 25 February.Google Scholar
- Pappalardo, K., & Bansai, K. (2018). How copyright law is holding back Australian creators. Published February 9th. Retrieved September, 23, 2018, from http://theconversation.com/how-copyright-law-is-holding-back-australiancreators-91390.
- Wu, T. (2006). Jay-Z Versus the Sample Troll The shady one-man corporation that’s destroying hip-hop. Slate website. November 16. Retrieved September 9, 2019, from https://slate.com/culture/2006/11/the-shady-one-man-corporation-that-s-destroying-hip-hop.html.
Electronic Freedom Foundation. Documents with No Date as Follows:
- Garcia v. Google Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.eff.org/cases/garcia-v-google-inc.
- Goodman, F. (2016). Allen Klein. The Man Who Bailed Out the Beatles, Made the Stones and Transformed Rock & Roll. Mariner Books. An Eamon Dolan Book. Houghton, Miflin, Harcourt, Boston and New York. (Originally Published 2015).Google Scholar
- Hurwitz, L. (2015). Can’t Touch This: A Comparative Analysis of Sampling Law in the United States and Internationally. Michigan State International Law Review, 23(1), 231–264.Google Scholar
- JibJabMedia vs Ludlow Music. (n.d.). (This Land Parody) Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.eff.org/cases/jibjab-media-inc-v-ludlow-music-inc.
- Klang, M., & Nolan, J. (2012). Tolerance Is Law: Remixing Homage, Parodying Plagiarism. SCRIPTed, 9(2).Google Scholar
- Leigh, S. (2010, July 8). When It Comes to Songwriting, There’s a Fine Line Between Inspiration and Plagiarism. The Independent. Retrieved May 14, 2019, from https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/musicfeatures/when-it-comes-to-songwriting-theres-a-fine-line-between-inspiration-and-plagiarism2021199.html.
- Lindvall, H. (2011, August 26). Why Topline Melody Writing Creates Disputes between Artists And Songwriters. Behind the Music Blog. The Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved October 21, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2011/aug/26/topline-melody-disputes-artistssongwriters.
- McDonagh, L. T. (2012). Is Creative Use of Musical Works Without a Licence Acceptable Under Copyright? International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 43(4), 401–426.Google Scholar
- McLeod, J. K., & DiCola, P. (with Toomoey, J. and Thompson, K.). (2014). Creative License. The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Mispagel, C. (2018). Resolving a Copyright Law Circuit Split: The Importance of a de minimis Exception for Sampled Sound Recordings. Saint Louis University Law School, 62(2), 461–484.Google Scholar
- Morrison, D. (2008). Bridgeport Redux: Digital Sampling and Audience Recoding. Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal, 19(1). Available atSSRN. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=1334809.
- Mueller, J. (2006). All Mixed Up: Bridgeport Music v. Dimension Films and De Minimis Digital Sampling. Indiana Law Journal, 81(1), Article22, 435–463.Google Scholar
- Oliver, P., & Ewald, J. (2017).UK Copyright and the Limits of UK Music Sampling. SSRN Electronic Journal. Retrieved September 11, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313476275_UK_Copyright_and_the_Limits_of_UK_Music_Sampling.
- Reilly, T. (2012). Good Fences Make Good Neighboring Rights: The German Federal Supreme Court Rules on the Digital Sampling of Sound Recordings in Metall auf Metall. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 13(1), Article7, 153–209.Google Scholar
- Ricketson, S., & Ginsburg, J. (2005).International Copyright and Neighbouring Rights: The Berne Convention and Beyond, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rychlicki, T., & Zieliński, A. (2009). Is Sampling Always Copyright Infringement? WIPO Magazine, 6, Article 7. Retrieved January 7, 2019, from https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2009/06/article_0007.html
- Scherer, F. M. (2008). The Emergence of Musical Copyright in Europe from 1709 to 1850. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 5(2), 3–18.Google Scholar
- Schipper, B. (2014). THE CHILLING EFFECT OF “KRAFTWERK I/II” ON SOUND SAMPLINGPLEA FOR SELF-REGULATION TO ADVANCE THE USE OF SAMPLING translated from original in Dutch Copyright, Media and Information Law Journal (AMI) July/August, 4, 105–112. Retrieved September 9, 2019, from http://www.schipperlegal.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Kraftwerk-Decisions-Chilling-Effect-on-Sound-Sampling-US-1.pdf (note to editors the capitalisation of the title and use of bold is as in the original)
- Schumpeter, J. A. (2014). Originally Published. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 2nd ed. Floyd, VA: Impact Books.Google Scholar
- Senior, M. (2001). Sweet Symphony. Interview with David Sinclair Whittaker. Sound on Sound. Issue 1, January.Google Scholar
- Townley, H. (1993). Sampling. Weapon of the Copyright Pirate? University of Tasmania Law Review, 12(1), 102–118.Google Scholar
- Waldfogel, J. (2014). Digitization, Copyright, and the Flow of New Music Products, Ch. 12 in V. Ginsburgh, & D. Throsby (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture (vol. 2, pp. 277–298). North-Holland: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Watson, J. (2017). Copyright and the Production of Hip-Hop Music. Semantic Scholar Website. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7219/a09fa0a5b9b569ea9255088ab24bc8a2c7c4.pdf?_ga=2.117682305.907132683.1562585029-1907714462.1562585029.