An Improved Reversible Watermarking Based on Pixel Value Ordering and Prediction Error Expansion

  • Le Quang HoaEmail author
  • Cao Thi LuyenEmail author
  • Nguyen Kim SaoEmail author
  • Pham Van AtEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12034)


In this paper, a new pixel value ordering (PVO) and prediction error Expansion (PEE) based reversible watermarking method is proposed. PVO based method firstly introduced by Li et al.’s has been concerned and expanded because it can achieve high embedding capacity without losing the implication of the cover. We improve related work in two points: the first is the way to build location map, the second is technique of embedding secret data. Only one bit is used to create location map while related scheme utilizes two bits. So that we get the location map with shorter size. The less size location map the more embedding capacity because we have more space to embed data, the embedding capacity of the proposed scheme is thus increased. Theory analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed scheme is clearly better in terms of embedding capacity compared with state-of-the-art works. The watermarked image that is applied our technique is good imperceptibility.


Revesible watemarking PVO PVOK GePVOK PEE 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Applied Mathematics and InformaticsHanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyUniversity of Transport and CommunicationsHanoiVietnam

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