Brief History and Overview of the Main Ideas for Quantum Computing
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The idea of quantum computing was put forward 40 years ago. It became a subject of great excitement after 1994, when Peter Shor proposed his fameous factoring algorithm. In this chapter, the main theoretical ideas and terminology of quantum computing are briefly presented. The frightening statement, commonly used by journalists that the qubit can be in two different states at the same time, is demystified.