Advertisement

Advanced Cancers, Metastatic Disease, and Palliative Care

  • Sonya S. Lowe
  • Christopher Sellar
  • Kirsten Suderman
  • Margaret L. McNeelyEmail author
Chapter
  • 88 Downloads

Abstract

Exercise, at appropriate volumes, shows promise as a strategy to optimize functional capacity, symptom management, and quality of life in those with advanced cancer. Specifically, the research evidence suggests that exercise may prevent or delay declines in aerobic fitness and strength and help the survivor to maintain adequate physical function to perform daily activities.

The purpose of this chapter is to outline the role of exercise for survivors with advanced cancer, who have metastatic disease, or who are receiving palliative care. In this setting, the challenges facing the exercise specialist are complex and involve identifying symptoms, functional impairments, and co-pathologies that may impact exercise risk and tolerance. The need for ongoing modification of exercise programming should be anticipated to ensure that exercise participation is safe and effective. The goal of exercise for survivors with terminal cancer and limited life expectancy is to help maintain function as the focus of care shifts to living as well as possible in the short term. At this stage of disease, an interdisciplinary team approach is paramount to address symptom management and optimize independence.

Keywords

Palliative Advanced cancer End of life Metastatic Physical activity exercise Interdisciplinary care 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    WHO. Cancer pain relief and palliative care: report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organization technical report series. Geneva; 1990. p. 11.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dittus KL, Gramling RE, Ades PA. Exercise interventions for individuals with advanced cancer: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2017;104:124–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Silver JK, Baima J, Mayer RS. Impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation: an essential component of quality care and survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013;63(5):295–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albrecht TA, Taylor AG. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2012;16(3):293–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laird BJ, Fallon M, Hjermstad MJ, Tuck S, Kaasa S, Klepstad P, McMillan DC. Quality of life in patients with advanced cancer: differential association with performance status and systemic inflammatory response. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(23):2769–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simone CB 2nd. Early palliative care and integration of palliative care models in modern oncology practices. Ann Palliat Med. 2015;4(3):84–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haun MW, Estel S, Rucker G, Friederich HC, Villalobos M, Thomas M, Hartmann M. Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;6:Cd011129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferrell BR, Temel JS, Temin S, Alesi ER, Balboni TA, Basch EM, Firn JI, Paice JA, Peppercorn JM, Phillips T, et al. Integration of palliative care into standard oncology care: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(1):96–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knaul FM, Farmer PE, Krakauer EL, De Lima L, Bhadelia A, Jiang Kwete X, Arreola-Ornelas H, Gomez-Dantes O, Rodriguez NM, Alleyne GAO, et al. Alleviating the access abyss in palliative care and pain relief-an imperative of universal health coverage: the Lancet Commission report. Lancet (London, England). 2018;391(10128):1391–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Hui D, Mori M, Parsons HA, Kim SH, Li ZJ, Damani S, Bruera E. The lack of standard definitions in the supportive and palliative oncology literature. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2012;43(3):582–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peppercorn JM, Smith TJ, Helft PR, Debono DJ, Berry SR, Wollins DS, Hayes DM, Von Roenn JH, Schnipper LE. American society of clinical oncology statement: toward individualized care for patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(6):755–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    NCI. Advanced cancer. In: National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms. 2018. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/advanced-cancer.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Understanding advanced cancer, metastatic cancer and bone metastases. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/advanced-cancer/what-is.html.
  17. 17.
    Klein EA, Kupelian PA, Dreicer R, Peereboom D, Zippe C. Locally advanced prostate cancer. Curr Treat Options in Oncol. 2001;2(5):403–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin RC 2nd. Management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 2016;96(6):1371–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Chambers AF, Naumov GN, Varghese HJ, Nadkarni KV, MacDonald IC, Groom AC. Critical steps in hematogenous metastasis: an overview. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2001;10(2):243–255, vii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adra N, Einhorn LH. Testicular cancer update. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol: H&O. 2017;15(5):386–96.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hui D, Nooruddin Z, Didwaniya N, Dev R, De La Cruz M, Kim SH, Kwon JH, Hutchins R, Liem C, Bruera E. Concepts and definitions for “actively dying,” “end of life,” “terminally ill,” “terminal care,” and “transition of care”: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;47(1):21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sizoo EM, Pasman HR, Dirven L, Marosi C, Grisold W, Stockhammer G, Egeter J, Grant R, Chang S, Heimans JJ, et al. The end-of-life phase of high-grade glioma patients: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(3):847–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peddle-McIntyre CJ, Singh F, Thomas R, Newton RU, Galvao DA, Cavalheri V. Exercise training for advanced lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;2:Cd012685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heywood R, McCarthy AL, Skinner TL. Safety and feasibility of exercise interventions in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(10):3031–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu C, Zheng Y, Duan Y, Lai X, Cui S, Xu N, Tang C, Lu L. Nonpharmacological interventions for cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. 2019;16(2):102–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Do J, Cho Y, Jeon J. Effects of a 4-week multimodal rehabilitation program on quality of life, cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. J Breast Cancer. 2015;18(1):87–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zimmer P, Trebing S, Timmers-Trebing U, Schenk A, Paust R, Bloch W, Rudolph R, Streckmann F, Baumann FT. Eight-week, multimodal exercise counteracts a progress of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and improves balance and strength in metastasized colorectal cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26(2):615–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gagnon B, Murphy J, Eades M, Lemoignan J, Jelowicki M, Carney S, Amdouni S, Di Dio P, Chasen M, Macdonald N. A prospective evaluation of an interdisciplinary nutrition-rehabilitation program for patients with advanced cancer. Curr Oncol. 2013;20(6):310–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lowe SS, Watanabe SM, Baracos VE, Courneya KS. Home-based functional walking program for advanced cancer patients receiving palliative care: a case series. BMC Palliat Care. 2013;12:22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Siemens W, Wehrle A, Gaertner J, Henke M, Deibert P, Becker G. Implementing a home-based exercise program for patients with advanced, incurable diseases after discharge and their caregivers: lessons we have learned. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:509.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gresham G, Schrack J, Gresham LM, Shinde AM, Hendifar AE, Tuli R, Rimel BJ, Figlin R, Meinert CL, Piantadosi S. Wearable activity monitors in oncology trials: current use of an emerging technology. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018;64:13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Salakari MR, Surakka T, Nurminen R, Pylkkanen L. Effects of rehabilitation among patients with advances cancer: a systematic review. Acta Oncol. 2015;54(5):618–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, Nieman DC, Swain DP, American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2017.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):687–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Riebe D, Franklin BA, Thompson PD, Garber CE, Whitfield GP, Magal M, Pescatello LS. Updating ACSM’s recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):2473–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McIsaac DI, Saunders C, Hladkowicz E, Bryson GL, Forster AJ, Gagne S, Huang A, Lalu M, Lavallee LT, Moloo H, et al. PREHAB study: a protocol for a prospective randomised clinical trial of exercise therapy for people living with frailty having cancer surgery. BMJ Open. 2018;8(6):e022057.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bryant AL, Deal AM, Battaglini CL, Phillips B, Pergolotti M, Coffman E, Foster MC, Wood WA, Bailey C, Hackney AC, et al. The effects of exercise on patient-reported outcomes and performance-based physical function in adults with acute leukemia undergoing induction therapy: exercise and quality of life in acute leukemia (EQUAL). Integr Cancer Ther. 2018;17(2):263–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C, Demark-Wahnefried W, Galvao DA, Pinto BM, Irwin ML, Wolin KY, Segal RJ, Lucia A, et al. American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(7):1409–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Herdy AH, Ritt LE, Stein R, Araujo CG, Milani M, Meneghelo RS, Ferraz AS, Hossri C, Almeida AE, Fernandes-Silva MM, et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise test: background, applicability and interpretation. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016;107(5):467–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McNeely ML, Dolgoy N, Onazi M, Suderman K. The interdisciplinary rehabilitation care team and the role of physical therapy in survivor exercise. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2016;20(6 Suppl):S8–S16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Capozzi LC, Lau H, Reimer RA, McNeely M, Giese-Davis J, Culos-Reed SN. Exercise and nutrition for head and neck cancer patients: a patient oriented, clinic-supported randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:446.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McArdle WD. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Suderman K, Sellar C, Peddle-McIntyre C, McNeely ML. Implementing cancer exercise rehabilitation: an update on recommendations for clinical practice. Curr Cancer Ther Rev. 2019;15(2):100–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cormie P, Atkinson M, Bucci L, Cust A, Eakin E, Hayes S, McCarthy S, Murnane A, Patchell S, Adams D. Clinical Oncology Society of Australia position statement on exercise in cancer care. Med J Aust. 2018;209(4):184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matsugaki R, Akebi T, Shitama H, Wada F, Saeki S. Immediate effects of exercise intervention on cancer-related fatigue. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018;30(2):262–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buckley J. Exercise physiology and monitoring of exercise in cardiac rehabilitation. In: Thow M, editor. Exercise leadership in cardiac rehabilitation. West Sussex: Wiley; 2006. p. 47–95.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Berger AM, Mooney K, Alvarez-Perez A, Breitbart WS, Carpenter KM, Cella D, Cleeland C, Dotan E, Eisenberger MA, Escalante CP, et al. Cancer-related fatigue, version 2.2015. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw: JNCCN. 2015;13(8):1012–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    O’Higgins CM, Brady B, O’Connor B, Walsh D, Reilly RB. The pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue: current controversies. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26(10):3353–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Davis MP, Walsh D. Mechanisms of fatigue. J Support Oncol. 2010;8(4):164–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hansen MK, Taishi P, Chen Z, Krueger JM. Vagotomy blocks the induction of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain of rats in response to systemic IL-1beta. J Neurosci. 1998;18(6):2247–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jager A, Sleijfer S, van der Rijt CC. The pathogenesis of cancer related fatigue: could increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines be the common denominator? Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990). 2008;44(2):175–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alexander S, Stone P, White S, Andrews P, Nussey S, Bano G. Evaluation of central serotonin sensitivity in breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue syndrome. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;40(6):892–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tell D, Mathews HL, Janusek LW. Day-to-day dynamics of associations between sleep, napping, fatigue, and the cortisol diurnal rhythm in women diagnosed as having breast cancer. Psychosom Med. 2014;76(7):519–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Neefjes EC, van der Vorst MJ, Blauwhoff-Buskermolen S, Verheul HM. Aiming for a better understanding and management of cancer-related fatigue. Oncologist. 2013;18(10):1135–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Prinsen H, van Dijk JP, Zwarts MJ, Leer JW, Bleijenberg G, van Laarhoven HW. The role of central and peripheral muscle fatigue in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;49(2):173–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yavuzsen T, Davis MP, Ranganathan VK, Walsh D, Siemionow V, Kirkova J, Khoshknabi D, Lagman R, LeGrand S, Yue GH. Cancer-related fatigue: central or peripheral? J Pain Symptom Manag. 2009;38(4):587–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kisiel-Sajewicz K, Davis MP, Siemionow V, Seyidova-Khoshknabi D, Wyant A, Walsh D, Hou J, Yue GH. Lack of muscle contractile property changes at the time of perceived physical exhaustion suggests central mechanisms contributing to early motor task failure in patients with cancer-related fatigue. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2012;44(3):351–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gandevia SC. Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev. 2001;81(4):1725–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Curt GA. The impact of fatigue on patients with cancer: overview of FATIGUE 1 and 2. Oncologist. 2000;5(Suppl 2):9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Curt GA, Breitbart W, Cella D, Groopman JE, Horning SJ, Itri LM, Johnson DH, Miaskowski C, Scherr SL, Portenoy RK, et al. Impact of cancer-related fatigue on the lives of patients: new findings from the Fatigue Coalition. Oncologist. 2000;5(5):353–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hofman M, Ryan JL, Figueroa-Moseley CD, Jean-Pierre P, Morrow GR. Cancer-related fatigue: the scale of the problem. Oncologist. 2007;12(Suppl 1):4–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Van Lancker A, Velghe A, Van Hecke A, Verbrugghe M, Van Den Noortgate N, Grypdonck M, Verhaeghe S, Bekkering G, Beeckman D. Prevalence of symptoms in older cancer patients receiving palliative care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;47(1):90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stone P, Richardson A, Ream E, Smith AG, Kerr DJ, Kearney N. Cancer-related fatigue: inevitable, unimportant and untreatable? Results of a multi-centre patient survey. Cancer Fatigue Forum. Ann Oncol. 2000;11(8):971–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Oh HS, Seo WS. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlates of cancer-related fatigue. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. 2011;8(4):191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Okuyama T, Akechi T, Shima Y, Sugahara Y, Okamura H, Hosaka T, Furukawa TA, Uchitomi Y. Factors correlated with fatigue in terminally ill cancer patients: a longitudinal study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2008;35(5):515–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yennurajalingam S, Bruera E. Fatigue and asthenia. In: Cherny N, Fallon MT, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK, Currow DC, editors. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 409–20.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mucke M, Cuhls H, Peuckmann-Post V, Minton O, Stone P, Radbruch L. Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(5):Cd006788.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jacobsen PB, Donovan KA, Vadaparampil ST, Small BJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological and activity-based interventions for cancer-related fatigue. Health Psychol. 2007;26(6):660–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ogilvy C, Livingstone K, Prue G. Management of cancer-related fatigue. In: Rankin J, Robb K, Murtage N, Cooper J, Lewis S, editors. Rehabilitation in cancer care. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2008. p. 264–79.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    McNeely ML, Courneya KS. Exercise programs for cancer-related fatigue: evidence and clinical guidelines. J Natl Compr Canc Netw: JNCCN. 2010;8(8):945–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mustian KM, Alfano CM, Heckler C, Kleckner AS, Kleckner IR, Leach CR, Mohr D, Palesh OG, Peppone LJ, Piper BF, et al. Comparison of pharmaceutical, psychological, and exercise treatments for cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2017;3:961–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D’Oronzo S, Coleman R, Brown J, Silvestris F. Metastatic bone disease: pathogenesis and therapeutic options: up-date on bone metastasis management. J Bone Oncol. 2019;15:004–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Macedo F, Ladeira K, Pinho F, Saraiva N, Bonito N, Pinto L, Goncalves F. Bone metastases: an overview. Oncol Rev. 2017;11(1):321.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wu MY, Li CJ, Yiang GT, Cheng YL, Tsai AP, Hou YT, Ho YC, Hou MF, Chu PY. Molecular regulation of bone metastasis pathogenesis. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;46(4):1423–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maurizi A, Rucci N. The osteoclast in bone metastasis: player and target. Cancers. 2018;10(7):218.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ottewell PD. The role of osteoblasts in bone metastasis. J Bone Oncol. 2016;5(3):124–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Coleman RE. Clinical features of metastatic bone disease and risk of skeletal morbidity. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(20 Pt 2):6243s–9s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Aielli F, Ponzetti M, Rucci N. Bone metastasis pain, from the bench to the bedside. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(2):280.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Coleman RE. Skeletal complications of malignancy. Cancer. 1997;80(8 Suppl):1588–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lawton AJ, Lee KA, Cheville AL, Ferrone ML, Rades D, Balboni TA, Abrahm JL. Assessment and management of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression: a multidisciplinary review. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37(1):61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Saravana-Bawan S, David E, Sahgal A, Chow E. Palliation of bone metastases-exploring options beyond radiotherapy. Ann Palliat Med. 2019;8(2):168–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dash A, Das T, Knapp FFR. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Painful Bone Metastases: Past Developments, Current Status, Recent Advances and Future Directions [published online ahead of print, 2019 Feb 1]. Curr Med Chem. 2019;10.2174/0929867326666190201142814.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anract P, Biau D, Boudou-Rouquette P. Metastatic fractures of long limb bones. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res: OTSR. 2017;103(1s):S41–s51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wenger M. Vertebroplasty for metastasis. Med Oncol (Northwood, London, England). 2003;20(3):203–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ringe KI, Panzica M, von Falck C. Thermoablation of bone tumors. RoFo: Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin. 2016;188(6):539–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Masala S, Guglielmi G, Petrella MC, Mastrangeli R, Meschini A, Anselmetti GC, Bartolucci DA, Mammucari M, Manenti G, Simonetti G. Percutaneous ablative treatment of metastatic bone tumours: visual analogue scale scores in a short-term series. Singap Med J. 2011;52(3):182–9.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fan HT, Wang L, Zhang P, Liu SB. Photodynamic therapy in spinal metastases: a qualitative analysis of published results. Int Surg. 2015;100(4):712–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Layalle I, Flandroy P, Trotteur G, Dondelinger RF. Arterial embolization of bone metastases: is it worthwhile? J Belg Radiol. 1998;81(5):223–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gangi A, Kastler B, Klinkert A, Dietemann JL. Injection of alcohol into bone metastases under CT guidance. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1994;18(6):932–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hammerberg KW. Surgical treatment of metastatic spine disease. Spine. 1992;17(10):1148–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Toller CS, Charlesworth S, Mihalyo M, Howard P, Wilcock A. Bisphosphonates. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2019;57(5):1018–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    O’Carrigan B, Wong MH, Willson ML, Stockler MR, Pavlakis N, Goodwin A. Bisphosphonates and other bone agents for breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;10:Cd003474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mhaskar R, Kumar A, Miladinovic B, Djulbegovic B. Bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma: an updated network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;12:Cd003188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Macherey S, Monsef I, Jahn F, Jordan K, Yuen KK, Heidenreich A, Skoetz N. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;12:Cd006250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yee AJ, Raje NS. Denosumab for the treatment of bone disease in solid tumors and multiple myeloma. Future Oncol (London, England). 2018;14(3):195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Colvin LA, Fallon MT. Cancer-induced bone pain. In: Cherny N, Fallon MT, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK, Currow DC, editors. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 841–59.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    White P, Arnold R, Bull J, Cicero B. The use of corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for painful bone metastases: a large cross-sectional survey of palliative care providers. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2018;35(1):151–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Galvao DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Cormie P, Joseph D, Chambers SK, Chee R, Peddle-McIntyre CJ, Hart NH, Baumann FT, et al. Exercise preserves physical function in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(3):393–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rief H, Akbar M, Keller M, Omlor G, Welzel T, Bruckner T, Rieken S, Hafner MF, Schlampp I, Gioules A, et al. Quality of life and fatigue of patients with spinal bone metastases under combined treatment with resistance training and radiation therapy- a randomized pilot trial. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:151.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    American Thoracic Society. Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):321–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Parshall MB, Schwartzstein RM, Adams L, Banzett RB, Manning HL, Bourbeau J, Calverley PM, Gift AG, Harver A, Lareau SC, et al. An official American Thoracic Society statement: update on the mechanisms, assessment, and management of dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(4):435–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mercadante S, Fusco F, Caruselli A, Cartoni C, Masedu F, Valenti M, Aielli F. Background and episodic breathlessness in advanced cancer patients followed at home. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017;33(1):155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ripamonti C. Management of dyspnea in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 1999;7(4):233–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Solano JP, Gomes B, Higginson IJ. A comparison of symptom prevalence in far advanced cancer, AIDS, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2006;31(1):58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bruera E, Schmitz B, Pither J, Neumann CM, Hanson J. The frequency and correlates of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2000;19(5):357–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dudgeon DJ, Kristjanson L, Sloan JA, Lertzman M, Clement K. Dyspnea in cancer patients: prevalence and associated factors. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2001;21(2):95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wilcock A, Crosby V, Hughes A, Fielding K, Corcoran R, Tattersfield AE. Descriptors of breathlessness in patients with cancer and other cardiorespiratory diseases. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;23(3):182–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Booth S, Silvester S, Todd C. Breathlessness in cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: using a qualitative approach to describe the experience of patients and carers. Palliat Support Care. 2003;1(4):337–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Seow H, Barbera L, Sutradhar R, Howell D, Dudgeon D, Atzema C, Liu Y, Husain A, Sussman J, Earle C. Trajectory of performance status and symptom scores for patients with cancer during the last six months of life. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(9):1151–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tanaka K, Akechi T, Okuyama T, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Prevalence and screening of dyspnea interfering with daily life activities in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;23(6):484–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Booth S, Moosavi SH, Higginson IJ. The etiology and management of intractable breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review of pharmacological therapy. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008;5(2):90–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Manning HL, Mahler DA. Pathophysiology of dyspnea. Monaldi archives for chest disease =. Arch Monaldi Mal Torace. 2001;56(4):325–30.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smoller JW, Pollack MH, Otto MW, Rosenbaum JF, Kradin RL. Panic anxiety, dyspnea, and respiratory disease. Theoretical and clinical considerations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(1):6–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bledsoe TJ, Nath SK, Decker RH. Radiation pneumonitis. Clin Chest Med. 2017;38(2):201–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Abid SH, Malhotra V, Perry MC. Radiation-induced and chemotherapy-induced pulmonary injury. Curr Opin Oncol. 2001;13(4):242–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chin C, Booth S. Managing breathlessness: a palliative care approach. Postgrad Med J. 2016;92(1089):393–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lok CW. Management of breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a narrative review. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2016;33(3):286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bausewein C, Booth S, Gysels M, Higginson I. Non-pharmacological interventions for breathlessness in advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):Cd005623.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Farquhar MC, Prevost AT, McCrone P, Higginson IJ, Gray J, Brafman-Kennedy B, Booth S. Study protocol: phase III single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention for breathlessness in advanced disease. Trials. 2011;12:130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Booth S, Moffat C, Farquhar M, Higginson IJ, Burkin J. Developing a breathlessness intervention service for patients with palliative and supportive care needs, irrespective of diagnosis. J Palliat Care. 2011;27(1):28–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Henke CC, Cabri J, Fricke L, Pankow W, Kandilakis G, Feyer PC, de Wit M. Strength and endurance training in the treatment of lung cancer patients in stages IIIA/IIIB/IV. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(1):95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hwang CL, Yu CJ, Shih JY, Yang PC, Wu YT. Effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving targeted therapy. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(12):3169–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jastrzebski D, Maksymiak M, Kostorz S, Bezubka B, Osmanska I, Mlynczak T, Rutkowska A, Baczek Z, Ziora D, Kozielski J. Pulmonary rehabilitation in advanced lung cancer patients during chemotherapy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;861:57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Molassiotis A, Charalambous A, Taylor P, Stamataki Z, Summers Y. The effect of resistance inspiratory muscle training in the management of breathlessness in patients with thoracic malignancies: a feasibility randomised trial. Support Care Cancer. 2015;23(6):1637–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vanderbyl BL, Mayer MJ, Nash C, Tran AT, Windholz T, Swanson T, Kasymjanova G, Jagoe RT. A comparison of the effects of medical Qigong and standard exercise therapy on symptoms and quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(6):1749–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Burwen DR, Wu C, Cirillo D, Rossouw JE, Margolis KL, Limacher M, Wallace R, Allison M, Eaton CB, Safford M, et al. Venous thromboembolism incidence, recurrence, and mortality based on Women’s Health Initiative data and Medicare claims. Thromb Res. 2017;150:78–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Thachil J. Deep vein thrombosis. Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2014;19(5):309–10.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Goldhaber SZ, Bounameaux H. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Lancet (London, England). 2012;379(9828):1835–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bates SM, Jaeschke R, Stevens SM, Goodacre S, Wells PS, Stevenson MD, Kearon C, Schunemann HJ, Crowther M, Pauker SG, et al. Diagnosis of DVT: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012;141(2 Suppl):e351S–418S.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Farge D, Bounameaux H, Brenner B, Cajfinger F, Debourdeau P, Khorana AA, Pabinger I, Solymoss S, Douketis J, Kakkar A. International clinical practice guidelines including guidance for direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(10):e452–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Blom JW, Doggen CJ, Osanto S, Rosendaal FR. Malignancies, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA. 2005;293(6):715–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, Heit JA, Samama CM, Lassen MR, Colwell CW. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):381s–453s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Petterson TM, Marks RS, Ashrani AA, Bailey KR, Heit JA. Risk of site-specific cancer in incident venous thromboembolism: a population-based study. Thromb Res. 2015;135(3):472–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ashrani AA, Gullerud RE, Petterson TM, Marks RS, Bailey KR, Heit JA. Risk factors for incident venous thromboembolism in active cancer patients: a population based case-control study. Thromb Res. 2016;139:29–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Verso M, Agnelli G. Venous thromboembolism associated with long-term use of central venous catheters in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(19):3665–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Khorana AA, Francis CW, Blumberg N, Culakova E, Refaai MA, Lyman GH. Blood transfusions, thrombosis, and mortality in hospitalized patients with cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(21):2377–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Donnellan E, Khorana AA. Cancer and venous thromboembolic disease: a review. Oncologist. 2017;22(2):199–207.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Evensen LH, Braekkan SK, Hansen JB. Regular physical activity and risk of venous thromboembolism. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2018;44(8):765–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lakoski SG, Savage PD, Berkman AM, Penalosa L, Crocker A, Ades PA, Kahn SR, Cushman M. The safety and efficacy of early-initiation exercise training after acute venous thromboembolism: a randomized clinical trial. J Thromb Haemost: JTH. 2015;13(7):1238–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Noack F, Schmidt B, Amoury M, Stoevesandt D, Gielen S, Pflaumbaum B, Girschick C, Voller H, Schlitt A. Feasibility and safety of rehabilitation after venous thromboembolism. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2015;11:397–401.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hardy JR, Glare P, Yates P, Mannix KA. Palliation of nausea and vomiting. In: Cherny N, Fallon MT, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK, Currow DC, editors. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 661–74.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Stephenson J, Davies A. An assessment of aetiology-based guidelines for the management of nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(4):348–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ruijs CD, Kerkhof AJ, van der Wal G, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD. Symptoms, unbearability and the nature of suffering in terminal cancer patients dying at home: a prospective primary care study. BMC Fam Pract. 2013;14:201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kapo JM, Adams C, Giddings-Connolly RM, Hui F, Putnam AT, Sands R, Shalshin A. Nausea and vomiting. In: Shega JW, Paniagua MA, editors. Unipac 4: nonpain symptom management. Chicago: American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine; 2017. p. 43–54.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pirri C, Bayliss E, Trotter J, Olver IN, Katris P, Drummond P, Bennett R. Nausea still the poor relation in antiemetic therapy? The impact on cancer patients’ quality of life and psychological adjustment of nausea, vomiting and appetite loss, individually and concurrently as part of a symptom cluster. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21(3):735–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Reuben DB, Mor V. Nausea and vomiting in terminal cancer patients. Arch Intern Med. 1986;146(10):2021–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Smith HS, Smith EJ, Smith AR. Pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting in palliative medicine. Ann Palliat Med. 2012;1(2):87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Collis E, Mather H. Nausea and vomiting in palliative care. BMJ (Clinical Research ed). 2015;351:h6249.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Glare PA, Dunwoodie D, Clark K, Ward A, Yates P, Ryan S, Hardy JR. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in terminally ill cancer patients. Drugs. 2008;68(18):2575–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vayne-Bossert P, Haywood A, Good P, Khan S, Rickett K, Hardy JR. Corticosteroids for adult patients with advanced cancer who have nausea and vomiting (not related to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:Cd012002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Cox L, Darvill E, Dorman S. Levomepromazine for nausea and vomiting in palliative care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(11):Cd009420.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Murray-Brown F, Dorman S. Haloperidol for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(11):Cd006271.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sutherland A, Naessens K, Plugge E, Ware L, Head K, Burton MJ, Wee B. Olanzapine for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related nausea and vomiting in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;9:Cd012555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Walsh D, Davis M, Ripamonti C, Bruera E, Davies A, Molassiotis A. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations: management of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(1):333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Harder S, Herrstedt J, Isaksen J, Neergaard MA, Frandsen K, Sigaard J, Mondrup L, Jespersen BA, Groenvold M. The nature of nausea: prevalence, etiology, and treatment in patients with advanced cancer not receiving antineoplastic treatment. Support Care Cancer. 2019;27(8):3071–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Uster A, Ruehlin M, Mey S, Gisi D, Knols R, Imoberdorf R, Pless M, Ballmer PE. Effects of nutrition and physical exercise intervention in palliative cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2018;37(4):1202–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Denlinger CS, Carlson RW, Are M, Baker KS, Davis E, Edge SB, Friedman DL, Goldman M, Jones L, King A, et al. Survivorship: introduction and definition. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2014;12(1):34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Heindel W, Gubitz R, Vieth V, Weckesser M, Schober O, Schafers M. The diagnostic imaging of bone metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(44):741–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Morris J, Belzarena A, Boland P. Bone metastases. In: Stubblefield MD, O’Dell MW, editors. Cancer rehabilitation: principles and practices. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; 2019. p. 780–8.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Rief H, Bruckner T, Schlampp I, Bostel T, Welzel T, Debus J, Forster R. Resistance training concomitant to radiotherapy of spinal bone metastases – survival and prognostic factors of a randomized trial. Radiat Oncol. 2016;11:97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rief H, Omlor G, Akbar M, Bruckner T, Rieken S, Forster R, Schlampp I, Welzel T, Bostel T, Roth HJ, et al. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with spinal metastases after resistance training under radiotherapy--a randomized trial. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:231.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rief H, Omlor G, Akbar M, Welzel T, Bruckner T, Rieken S, Haefner MF, Schlampp I, Gioules A, Habermehl D, et al. Feasibility of isometric spinal muscle training in patients with bone metastases under radiation therapy – first results of a randomized pilot trial. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Cormie P, Newton RU, Spry N, Joseph D, Taaffe DR, Galvao DA. Safety and efficacy of resistance exercise in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015;18(2):196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Cormie P, Newton RU, Spry N, Joseph D, Taaffe DR, Galvao DA. Safety and efficacy of resistance exercise in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(4):328–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sheill G, Guinan EM, Peat N, Hussey J. Considerations for exercise prescription in patients with bone metastases: a comprehensive narrative review. PM R. 2018;10(8):843–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rewar S, Al Onazi M, Boudreau K, McNeely ML. A scoping review of combined yoga and resistance exercise for dyspnea in lung cancer survivors. J Yoga Physiother. 2018;5(3):1–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonya S. Lowe
    • 1
  • Christopher Sellar
    • 2
  • Kirsten Suderman
    • 2
  • Margaret L. McNeely
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Palliative Care Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Rehabilitation Medicine, Cross Cancer InstituteEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations