Advertisement

The Cranial Nerves

  • Hans J. ten DonkelaarEmail author
  • David Kachlík
  • Johannes R. M. Cruysberg
  • Ton van der Vliet
  • Peter van Domburg
Chapter
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

With the exception of the olfactory and optic nerves, all cranial nerves enter or leave the brain stem. Three of the cranial nerves are purely sensory (I, II and VIII), five are motor (III, IV, VI, XI and XII) and the remaining nerves (V, VII, IX and X) are mixed. The olfactory nerve will be discussed in ► Chap.  14, the optic nerve in ► Chap.  8 and the cochlear nerve in ► Chap.  7. The nuclei of the cranial nerves are arranged in an orderly, more or less columnar fashion in the brain stem: motor nuclei, somatomotor, branchiomotor and visceromotor (parasympathetic), derived from the basal plate, are located medially, whereas sensory nuclei, somatosensory, viscerosensory and vestibulocochlear, derived from the alar plate, are found lateral to the sulcus limitans. The cranial nerves innervate structures in the head and neck as well as visceral organs in the thorax and abdomen. The cranial nerves control eye movements, mastication, vocalization, facial expression, respiration, heart rate and digestion. One or several of the cranial nerves are often involved in lesions of the brain stem, of which the location can usually be determined if the topographical anatomy of the cranial nerves and their nuclei is known. Several examples are shown in Clinical cases.

Following a few notes on the development of the brain stem and congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (► Sect. 6.2), the following structures will be discussed: (1) ocular motor nerves and the effects of lesions of individual ocular motor nerves (► Sect. 6.3); (2) eye movements and some disorders affecting them (► Sect. 6.4); (3) the trigeminal nerve and changes in the blink reflex (► Sect. 6.5); (4) the facial nerve and peripheral facial nerve paralysis (► Sect. 6.6); (5) the gustatory system (► Sect. 6.7); (6) the vestibulocochlear nerve, vestibular control and some peripheral and central vestibular syndromes (► Sect. 6.8); and (7) the last four cranial nerves and some disorders affecting them (► Sects. 6.9 and 6.10). The English terms of the Terminologia Neuroanatomica are used throughout.

References

  1. Akbarian S, Grüsser OJ, Guldin WO (1993) Corticofugal projections to the vestibular nuclei in squirrel monkeys. Further evidence of multiple cortical vestibular fields. J Comp Neurol 332:89–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allum JH, Honegger F, Schicks H (1994) The influence of a bilateral vestibular deficit on postural synergies. J Vestib Res 4:49–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aramideh M, Ongerboer de Visser BW (2002) Brainstem reflexes: electrodiagnostic techniques, physiology, normative data, and clinical applications. Muscle Nerve 26:14–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aramideh M, Ongerboer de Visser BW, Koelman JH, Majoie CB, Holstege G (1997) The late blink reflex response abnormality due to lesion of the lateral tegmental field. Brain 120:1685–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson WJ (1949) The anterior inferior cerebellar artery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 12:137–151PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker J, Goldberg J, Peterson B, Schor R (1982) Oculomotor reflexes after semicircular canal plugging in cats. Brain Res 252:151–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker R, Berthoz A (1975) Is the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus the source of another vestibulo-ocular pathway? Brain Res 86:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baloh R, Honrubia V (2001) Clinical neurophysiology of the vestibular system, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Barry MA, Gatenby JC, Zeigler JD, Gore JC (2001) Hemispheric dominance of cortical activity evoked by focal electrogustatory stimuli. Chem Senses 26:471–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckstead RM, Norgren R (1979) Central distribution of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in the monkey. J Comp Neurol 184:455–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beckstead RM, Morse JR, Norgren R (1980) The nucleus of the solitary tract in the monkey: projections to the thalamus and brainstem nuclei. J Comp Neurol 190:259–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Benjamin RM, Burton H (1968) Projections of taste nerve afferents to anterior opercular-insular cortex in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Brain Res 7:221–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benjamin RM, Emmers R, Blomquist AJ (1968) Projection of tongue nerve afferents to somatic sensory area I in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Brain Res 7:208–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bogousslavsky J, Maeder P, Regli F, Meuli R (1994) Pure midbrain infarction: clinical syndromes, MRI and etiologic patterns. Neurology 44:2032–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bosley TM, Salih MA, Alorainy IA, Oystreck DT, Nester M, Abu-Amero KK et al (2007) Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. Neurology 69:1245–1253PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Bosley TM, Alorainy IA, Salih MA, Aldhalacu HM, Abu-Amero KK, Oystreck DT et al (2008) The clinical spectrum of homozygous HOXA1 mutations. Am J Med Genet A 146A:1235–1240PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowsher D (1997) Trigeminal neuralgia: an anatomically oriented review. Clin Anat 10:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brandt T, Strupp M (2005) General vestibular testing. Clin Neurophysiol 116:406–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brandt T, Dieterich M, Danek A (1994) Vestibular cortex lesions affect the perception of verticality. Ann Neurol 35:403–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandt T, Dieterich M, Strupp M (2005) Vertigo and dizziness: common complaints. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Brodal A (1981) The cranial nerves. In: Brodal A (ed) Neurological anatomy, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 448–577Google Scholar
  22. Brodal A (1983) The perihypoglossal nuclei in the macaque monkey and chimpanzee. J Comp Neurol 218:257–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brodal A (1984) The vestibular nuclei in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 227:252–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brödel M (1946) Three unpublished drawings of the anatomy of the human ear. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Büttner-Ennever JA (1977) Pathways from the pontine reticular formation to structures controlling horizontal and vertical eye movements in the monkey. In: Baker R, Berthoz A (eds) Control of gaze by brainstem neurons. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 89–93Google Scholar
  26. Büttner-Ennever JA (1999) A review of otolith pathways to brainstem and cerebellum. Ann N Y Acad Sci 871:51–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Büttner-Ennever JA, Akert K (1981) Medial rectus subgroups of the oculomotor nucleus and their abducens internuclear input in the monkey. J Comp Neurol 197:17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U (1978) A cell group associated with vertical eye movements in the rostral mesencephalic reticular formation of the monkey. Brain Res 151:31–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Büttner-Ennever JA, Gerrits NM (2004) Vestibular system. In: Paxinos G, Mai JK (eds) The human nervous system, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1213–1240Google Scholar
  30. Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE (1996) Pathways from cell groups of the paramedian tracts to the floccular region. Ann N Y Acad Sci 781:532–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE (2004) Reticular formation: eye movements, gaze, and blinks. In: Paxinos G, Mai JK (eds) The human nervous system, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 479–510Google Scholar
  32. Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE (eds) (2014) Olszewski and Baxter: cytoarchitecture of the human brain stem, 3rd edn. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  33. Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U, Cohen B, Baumgartner G (1982) Vertical gaze paralysis and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Brain 105:125–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE, Schmidtke K (1989a) Cell groups in the medial longitudinal fasciculus and paramedian tracts. Rev Neurol (Paris) 145:533–539Google Scholar
  35. Büttner-Ennever JA, Acheson JF, Büttner U, Graham EM, Leonard TJK, Sanders MD, Russell RM (1989b) Ptosis and supranuclear downgaze paralysis. Neurology 39:385–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Büttner-Ennever JA, Jenkins C, Armin-Parsa H, Horn AKE, Elston JS (1996) A neuroanatomical analysis of lid-eye coordination in cases of ptosis and downgaze paralysis. Clin Neuropathol 15:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cannon SC, Robinson DA (1987) Loss of the neural integrator of the oculomotor system from brain stem lesions in monkey. J Neurophysiol 57:1389–1409Google Scholar
  38. Carleton SC, Carpenter MB (1983) Afferent and efferent connections of the medial, inferior and lateral vestibular nuclei in the cat and monkey. Brain Res 278:29–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Carleton SC, Carpenter MB (1984) Distribution of primary vestibular fibers in the brainstem and cerebellum of the monkey. Brain Res 294:281–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Carmichael ST, Price JL (1995a) Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 363:615–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carmichael ST, Price JL (1995b) Sensory and premotor connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 363:642–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Carpenter EM, Goddard JM, Chisaka O, Manley NR, Capecchi MR (1993) Loss of Hox-A1 (Hox-1.6) function results in the reorganization of the murine hindbrain. Development 118:1063–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Carpenter MB, Carleton SC (1983) Comparison of vestibular and abducens internuclear projections to the medial rectus subdivision of the oculomotor nucleus in the monkey. Brain Res 274:144–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Carpenter MB, Cowie RJ (1985a) Transneuronal transport in the vestibular and auditory systems of the squirrel monkey and the arctic ground squirrel. I. Vestibular systems. Brain Res 358:249–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Carpenter MB, Cowie RJ (1985b) Connections and oculomotor projections of the superior vestibular nucleus and cell group “y”. Brain Res 336:265–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cascino G, Karnes W (1990) Gustatory and second sensory seizures associated with lesions in the insular cortex seen on magnetic resonance imaging. J Epilepsy 3:185–187Google Scholar
  47. Coiner B, Pan H, Bennett ML, Bodian YG, Iyer S, O’Neill-Pirozes TM et al (2019) Functional neuroanatomy of the human eye movement network: a review and atlas. Brain Struct Funct 224:2603–2617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Combarros O, Sanchez-Juan P, Berciano J, De Pablos C (2000) Hemiageusia from an ipsilateral multiple sclerosis plaque at the midpontine tegmentum. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 68:796PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Cordes SP (2001) Molecular genetics of cranial nerve development in mouse. Nat Rev Neurosci 2:611–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Craig AD (2014) Topographically organized projection to posterior insular cortex from the posterior portion of the ventral medial nucleus in the long-tailed macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 522:36–63PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Craig AD (2015) How do you feel? An interoceptive moment with your neurobiological self. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  52. Cruccu G, Iannetti GD, Marx JJ, Thoemke F, Truini A, Fitzek S et al (2005) Brainstem reflex circuits revisited. Brain 128:386–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Curthoys IS, Halmagyi GM (1995) Vestibular compensation: a review of the oculomotor, neural and clinical consequences of unilateral vestibular loss. J Vestib Res 5:67–107PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Dehaene I, Lammens M (1991) Paralysis of saccades and pursuit: Clinicopathological study. Neurology 41:414–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Dieterich M (2007) Functional brain imaging: a window into the visuo-vestibular systems. Curr Opin Neurol 20:12–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dieterich M, Brandt T (1993) Thalamic infarctions: differential effects on vestibular function in roll plane (35 patients). Neurology 43:1732–1740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dieterich M, Brandt T (2001) Vestibular syndromes and vertigo. In: Bogousslavsky J, Caplan LR (eds) Stroke Syndromes, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 129–143Google Scholar
  58. Dieterich M, Brandt T (2008) Functional brain imaging of peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Brain 131:2538–2552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dieterich M, Bense S, Stephan T, Schwaiger M, Bartenstein P, Brandt T (2005a) Medial vestibular nucleus lesions in Wallenberg’s syndrome cause decreased activity of the contralateral vestibular cortex. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1039:1–16Google Scholar
  60. Dieterich M, Bartenstein P, Spiegel SD, Bense S, Schwaiger M, Brandt T (2005b) Thalamic infarctions cause side-specific suppression of vestibular cortex activators. Brain 128:2052–2067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Doty RW (1968) Neural organization of deglutition. In: Code CF (ed) Handbook of physiology, sect 6, Alimentary canal, vol IV. American Physiological Society, Washington, DC, pp 1861–1902Google Scholar
  62. Duvernoy HM (1995) The human brain stem and cerebellum: surface, structure, vascularization and three-dimensional sectional anatomy with MRI. Springer, Wien-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Eickhoff SB, Weiss PH, Amunts K, Fink GR, Zilles K (2006) Identifying human parieto-insular vestibular cortex using fMRI and cytoarchitectonic mapping. Hum Brain Mapp 27:611–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Engle EC (2002) Applications of molecular genetics to the understanding of congenital ocular motility disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 956:55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Engle EC (2006) The genetic basis of complex strabismus. Pediatr Res 59:343–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Engle EC (2007) Oculomotility disorders arising from disruptions in brainstem motor neuron development. Arch Neurol 64:633–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Engle EC, Leigh RJ (2002) Genes, brainstem development, and eye movements. Neurology 59:304–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Esteban Á, Traba A, Prieto J (2004) Eyelid movements in health and disease. The supranuclear impairment of the palpebral motility. Neurophysiol Clin 34:3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Evinger C (1988) Extraocular motor nuclei: location, morphology and afferents. Rev Oculomot Res 2:81–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Faurion A, Cerf B, Van de Moortele P-F, Lobel E, MacLead P, LeBihan D (1999) Human taste cortical areas studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging: evidence of functional localization related to handedness. Neurosci Lett 277:189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fay RA, Norgren R (1997a) Identification of rat brainstem multisynaptic connections to the oral motor nuclei using pseudorabies virus. I. Masticatory muscle motor systems. Brain Res Rev 25:255–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fay RA, Norgren R (1997b) Ibid. II. Facial muscle motor systems. Brain Res Rev 25:276–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fay RA, Norgren R (1997c) Ibid. III. Lingual muscle motor systems. Brain Res Rev 25:291–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Fernandez C, Goldberg J (1971) Physiology of peripheral neurons innervating semicircular canals of the squirrel monkey. II. Response to sinusoidal stimulation and dynamics of peripheral vestibular system. J Neurophysiol 34:661–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fernandez C, Goldberg J (1976) Physiology of peripheral neurons innervating otolith organs of the squirrel monkey. I. Response to static tilts and to long duration centrifugal force. J Neurophysiol 39:970–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fernandez C, Goldberg J, Abend W (1972) Response to static tilts of peripheral neurons innervating otolith organs of the squirrel monkey. J Neurophysiol 35:978–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fox PT, Fox JM, Raichle ME, Burde RM (1985) The role of the cerebral cortex in the generation of voluntary saccades: a positron emission tomographic study. J Neurophysiol 54:348–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Frey S, Petrides M (1999) Re-examination of the human taste region: a positron emission tomographic study. Eur J Neurosci 11:2985–2988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Fukushima K (1987) The interstitial nucleus of Cajal and its role in the control of movements of head and eyes. Prog Neurobiol 29:107–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gasser RF, May M (2000) Embryonic development. In: May M, Schwaitkin BM (eds) The facial nerve, May’s, 2nd edn. Thieme, New York, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  81. Gavalas A, Studer M, Lumsden A, Rijli FM, Krumlauf R, Chambon P (1998) Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 synergize in patterning the hindbrain, cranial nerves and second pharyngeal arch. Development 125:1123–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gavalas A, Ruhrberg C, Livet J, Henderson CE, Krumlauf R (2003) Neuronal defects in the hindbrain of Hoxa1, Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 mutants reflect regulatory interactions among these Hox genes. Development 130:5663–5679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Geerlings RPJ, van Domburg PHMF (2014) Orbital apex syndrome caused by aspergillosis. Tijdschr Neurol Neurochir 116:176–181 (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  84. Genc BO, Genc E, Acik L, Ilhan S, Paksoy Y (2004) Acquired ocular motor apraxia from bilateral frontoparietal infarcts associated with Takayasu arteritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1651–1652PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Goldberg J, Fernandez C (1971) Physiology of peripheral neurons innervating semicircular canals of the squirrel monkey. I. Resting discharge and response to constant angular accelerations. J Neurophysiol 34:635–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Goto N, Yamamoto T, Kaneko M, Tomita H (1983) Primary pontine hemorrhage and gustatory disturbance: clinicoanatomic study. Stroke 14:507–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Graf W, Gerrits N, Yatim-Dhiba N, Ugolini G (2002) Mapping the oculomotor system: the power of transneuronal labelling with rabies virus. Eur J Neurosci 15:1557–1562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Graham SH, Sharp FR, Dillon W (1988) Intraoral sensation in patients with brainstem lesion: role of the rostral spinal trigeminal nuclei in pons. Neurology 38:1529–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Graybiel AM, Hartwieg EA (1974) Some afferent connections of the oculomotor complex in the cat: an experimental study with tracer techniques. Brain Res 81:543–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Grüsser OJ, Pause M, Schreiter U (1990a) Localization and responses of neurons in the parieto-insular cortex of awake monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). J Physiol Lond 430:537–557PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Grüsser OJ, Pause M, Schreiter U (1990b) Vestibular neurones in the parieto-insular cortex of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): visual and neck receptor responses. J Physiol Lond 430:559–583PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Guldin W, Grüsser OJ (1998) Is there a vestibular cortex? Trends Neurosci 21:254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Guldin WO, Akbarian S, Grüsser OJ (1992) Cortico-cortical connections and cytoarchitectonics of the primate vestibular cortex: a study in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J Comp Neurol 326:375–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gunny R, Yousry TA (2007) Imaging anatomy of the vestibular and visual systems. Curr Opin Neurol 20:3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Guthrie S (2007) Patterning and axon guidance of cranial motor neurons. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:859–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gutowski NJ, Bosley TM, Engle E (2003) Workshop report 110th ENMC international workshop: the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). Neuromuscul Disord 13:573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Guy JR, Day AL, Mickle JP, Schatz NY (1989) Contralateral trochlear nerve paresis and ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 107:73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hafferl A (1957) Lehrbuch der topographischen Anatomie. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Heidary G, Traboulsi EI, Engle EC (2012) The genetics of strabismus and associated disorders. In: Traboulsi EI (ed) Genetic diseases of the eye. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Helmchen C, Rambold H (2007) The eyelid and its contribution to eye movement. Dev Ophthalmol 40:110–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Henn V, Lang W, Hepp K, Reisine H (1984) Experimental gaze palsies in monkeys and their relation to human pathology. Brain 107:619–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hirai T, Jones EG (1989) A new parcellation of the human thalamus on the basis of histochemical staining. Brain Res Rev 14:1–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hirose G, Halmagyi GM (1996) Brain tumours and balance disorders. In: Baloh RW, Halmagyi GM (eds) Disorders of the vestibular system. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 446–460Google Scholar
  104. Hockman CH, Bieger D, Weerasuriya A (1979) Supranuclear pathways of swallowing. Prog Neurobiol 12:15–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Holstege G, Kuypers HGJM (1977) Propriobulbar fibre connections to the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal motor nuclei. I. An anterograde degeneration study in the cat. Brain 100:239–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Holstege G, Kuypers HGJM, Dekker JJ (1977) Ibid. II. An autoradiographic tracing study in cat. Brain 100:265–286Google Scholar
  107. Holstege G, Graveland G, Bijker-Biemond C, Schuddeboom I (1983) Location of motoneurons innervating soft palate, pharynx and upper esophagus. Anatomical evidence for a possible swallowing center in the pontine reticular formation. Brain Behav Evol 23:47–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Holstein GR (2012) The vestibular system. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G (eds) The human nervous system, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1239–1269Google Scholar
  109. Horn AKE (2006) The reticular formation. Prog Brain Res 151:33–79Google Scholar
  110. Horn AKE, Adamczyk C (2012) Reticular formation: eye movements, gaze and blinks. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G (eds) The human nervous system, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 328–366Google Scholar
  111. Horn AKE, Büttner-Ennever JA (1998) Premotor neurons for vertical eye movements in the rostral mesencephalon of monkey and human: histologic identification by parvalbumin immunostaining. J Comp Neurol 392:413–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Horn AKE, Leigh RJ (2011) The anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system. Handb Clin Neurol 102:21–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Horn AKE, Büttner-Ennever JA, Wahle P, Reichenberger I (1994) Neurotransmitter profile of saccadic omnipause neurons in the nucleus raphe interpositus. J Neurosci 14:2032–2046PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Horn AKE, Büttner-Ennever JA, Suzuki Y, Henn V (1995) Histological identification of premotor neurons for horizontal saccades in monkey and man by parvalbumin immunostaining. J Comp Neurol 359:350–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Horn AKE, Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U (1996) Saccadic premotor neurons in the brain stem: functional neuroanatomy and clinical implications. Neuro-Ophthalmology 16:229–240Google Scholar
  116. Horn AKE, Büttner-Ennever JA, Gayde M, Messoudi A (2000) Neuroanatomical identification of mesencephalic premotor neurons coordinating eyelid with upgaze in the monkey and man. J Comp Neurol 420:19–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Horn AKE, Brückner G, Härtig W, Messoudi A (2003) Saccadic omnipause and burst neurons in monkey and human are ensheathed by perikaryal nets but differ in their expression of calcium-binding proteins. J Comp Neurol 455:341–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Horn AKE, Eberhorn A, Härtig W, Ardeleanu P, Messoudi A, Büttner-Ennever JA (2008) Perioculomotor cell groups in monkey and man defined by their histochemical and functional properties: reappraisal of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. J Comp Neurol 507:1317–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hotchkiss MG, Miller NR, Clark AW, Green WR (1980) Bilateral Duane’s retraction syndrome: a clinico-pathologic case report. Arch Ophthalmol 98:870–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Imagawa M, Isu N, Sasaki M, Endo K, Ikegami H, Uchino Y (1995) Axonal projections of utricular afferents to the vestibular nuclei and the abducens nucleus in cats. Neurosci Lett 186:87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Imagawa M, Graf WM, Sato H, Suwa H, Isu N, Izumi R, Uchino Y (1998) Morphology of single afferents of the saccular macula in cats. Neurosci Lett 240:127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ito S, Ogawa H (1994) Neural activities in the frontal-opercular cortex of macaque monkeys during tasting and mastication. Jpn J Physiol 44:141–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Jannetta PJ (1980) Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease. Ann Surg 192:518–525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Jean A (2001) Brain stem control of swallowing: neuronal network and cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev 81:929–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Jen J, Coulin C, Bosley TM, Salih MAM, Sabatti C, Nelson SF, Baloh RW (2002) Familial horizontal gaze with progressive scoliosis (HGPS) maps to chromosome 11q23-25. Neurology 59:432–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Jen J, Chan W-M, Bosley TM, Wan J, Carr JR, Rüb U et al (2004) Mutations in a human ROBO gene disrupt hindbrain axon pathway crossing and morphogenesis. Science 304:1509–1513PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Kalia M, Mesulam M-M (1980) Brain stem projections of sensory and motor components of the vagus complex in the rat. II. Laryngeal, tracheobronchial, pulmonary, cardiac and gastrointestinal branches. J Comp Neurol 193:467–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Keshner E, Allum J, Pfaltz C (1987) Postural coactivation and adaptation in the sway stabilizing responses of normals and patients with bilateral vestibular deficit. Exp Brain Res 69:77–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kim HN, Kim YH, Park IY, Kim GR, Chung IH (1990) Variability of the surgical anatomy of the neurovascular complex of the cerebellopontine angle. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 90:288–296Google Scholar
  130. King A, Menon RS, Hachinski V, Cechetto DF (1999) Human forebrain activation by visceral stimuli. J Comp Neurol 413:572–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kobayakawa T, Endo H, Ayabe-Kanamura S, Kumagai T, Yamaguchi Y, Kikuchi Y et al (1996) The primary gustatory area in human cerebral cortex studied by magnetoencephalography. Neurosci Lett 212:155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kobayakawa T, Ogawa H, Kaneda H, Ayabe-Kanamura S, Endo H, Saito S (1999) Spatio-temporal analysis of cortical activity evoked by gustatory stimulation in humans. Chem Senses 24:201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kokkoroyannis T, Scudder CA, Balaban CD, Highstein SM, Moschovakis AK (1996) Anatomy and physiology of the primate interstitial nucleus of Cajal. I. Efferent projections. J Neurophysiol 75:725–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Konen CS, Kleiser R, Seitz RJ, Bremmer F (2005) An fMRI study of optokinetic nystagmus and smooth-pursuit eye movements in humans. Exp Brain Res 165:203–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kuypers HGJM (1958a) An anatomical analysis of cortico-bulbar connexions to the pons and lower brain stem in the cat. J Anat (Lond) 92:198–218Google Scholar
  136. Kuypers HGJM (1958b) Cortico-bulbar connexions to the pons and lower brain stem in man. Brain 81:364–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kuypers HGJM (1958c) Some projections from the peri-central cortex to the pons and lower brain stem in monkey and chimpanzee. J Comp Neurol 110:221–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Kwon M, Lee JH, Kim JS (2005) Dysphagia in unilateral medullary infarction. Neurology 65:714–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lane JI, Witte RJ, Driscoll CLW, Comp JJ, Robb RA (2004) Imaging microscopy of the middle and inner ear. Part I: CT microscopy. Clin Anat 17:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lane JI, Witte RJ, Henson OW, Driscoll CLW, Comp J, Robb RA (2005) Ibid. part II: MR microscopy. Clin Anat 18:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lang J (1992) Klinische Anatomie des Ohres. Springer, Vienna-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Lang W, Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U (1979) Vestibular projections to the monkey thalamus: an autoradiographic study. Brain Res 177:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Langer TP, Fuchs AF, Scudder CA, Chubb MC (1985) Afferents to the flocculus of the cerebellum in the rhesus macaque as revealed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 235:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Langer TP, Kaneko CR, Scudder CA, Fuchs AF (1986) Afferents to the abducens nucleus in the monkey and cat. J Comp Neurol 245:379–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Leblanc A (1995) Anatomy and imaging of the cranial nerves, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  146. Leigh RJ, Zee DS (2006) The neurology of eye movements, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  147. Lenz FA, Gracely RH, Zirk TA, Leopold DA, Rowland LH, Dougherty PM (1997) Human thalamic nucleus mediating taste and multiple other sensations related to ingestive behavior. J Neurophysiol 77:3406–3409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Love S, Coakham HB (2001) Trigeminal neuralgia. Pathology and pathogenesis. Brain 124:2347–2360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lumsden A, Krumlauf R (1996) Patterning the vertebrate neuraxis. Science 274:1109–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Luxon LM, Bamiou D-E (2007) Vestibular system disorders. In: Schapira AHV (ed) Neurology and clinical neuroscience. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 337–352Google Scholar
  151. Maciewicz RJ, Kaneko CRS, Highstein SM, Baker R (1975) Morphophysiological identification of interneurons in the oculomotor nucleus that project to the abducens nucleus in the cat. Brain Res 96:60–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Maes G, van Domburg P (2015) Dissection of the internal carotid artery and the Villaret’s syndrome. Tijdschr Neurol Neurochir 116:211–215 (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  153. Marín F, Arocha P, Puelles L (2008) Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains. Dev Biol 323:230–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. McCrea RA, Horn AKE (2006) Nucleus prepositus. Prog Brain Res 151:205–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. McCrea RA, Strassman A, May E, Highstein SM (1987a) Anatomical and physiological characteristics of vestibular neurons mediating the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflexes of the squirrel monkey. J Comp Neurol 264:547–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. McCrea RA, Strassman A, Highstein SM (1987b) Anatomical and physiological characteristics of vestibular neurons mediating the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflexes of the squirrel monkey. J Comp Neurol 264:571–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. McElligott JG, Spencer RF (2000) Neuropharmacological aspects of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. In: Anderson JH, Beitz AJ (eds) Neurochemistry of the vestibular system. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 199–222Google Scholar
  158. McMasters RE, Weiss AH, Carpenter MB (1966) Vestibular projections to the nuclei of the extraocular muscles. Degeneration resulting from discrete partial lesions of the vestibular nuclei in the monkey. Am J Anat 118:163–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. McRitchie DA, Törk I (1993) The internal organization of the human solitary nucleus. Brain Res Bull 31:171–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Meienberg O, Büttner-Ennever JA, Krans-Ruppert R (1981) Unilateral paralysis of conjugate gaze due to lesion of the abducens nucleus, clinico-pathological case report. Neuro-Ophthalmology 2:47–52Google Scholar
  161. Mesulam M-M, Mufson EJ (1982) Insula of the Old World monkey. III. Efferent cortical input and comments on function. J Comp Neurol 212:38–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Miller AJ (1982) Deglutition. Physiol Rev 62:129–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Miller NR, Kiel SM, Green WR, Clark AW (1982) Unilateral Duane’s retraction syndrome (type 1). Arch Ophthalmol 100:1468–1472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Miyazaki T, Yoshida Y, Hirano M, Shin T, Kanasaki T (1981) Central location of the motoneurons supplying the thyroid and the geniohyoid muscles as demonstrated by horseradish peroxidase methods. Brain Res 219:423–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Mizuno N, Konishi A, Sato M (1975) Localization of masticatory motoneurons in the cat and rat by means of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 164:105–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Morecraft RJ, Louie JL, Herrick JL, Stilwell-Morecraft KS (2001) Cortical innervation of the facial nucleus in the non-human primate. A new interpretation of the effects of stroke and related subtotal brain trauma on the muscles of facial expression. Brain 124:176–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Morrow MJ, Sharpe JA (1990) Cerebral hemispheric localization of smooth pursuit asymmetry. Neurology 40:284–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Moschovakis AK, Scudder CA, Highstein SM (1991a) Structure of the primate oculomotor burst generator. I. Medium-lead burst neurons with upward on-directions. J Neurophysiol 65:203–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Moschovakis AK, Scudder CA, Highstein SM, Warden JD (1991b) Ibid. II. Medium-lead burst neurons with downward on-directions. J Neurophysiol 65:218–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Moschovakis AK, Scudder CA, Highstein SM (1996) The microscopic anatomy and physiology of the mammalian saccadic system. Prog Neurobiol 50:133–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Müller F, O’Rahilly R (1997) The timing and sequence of appearance of neuromeres and their derivatives in staged human embryos. Acta Anat (Basel) 158:83–99Google Scholar
  172. Müri RM, Chermann JF, Cohen L, Rivaud S, Pierrot-Deseilligny C (1996a) Ocular motor consequences of damage to the abducens nucleus area in humans. Neuro-Ophthalmology 16:191–195Google Scholar
  173. Müri RM, Iba-Zizen MT, Derosier C, Cabanis EA, Pierrot-Deseilligny C (1996b) Location of the human posterior eye field with functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60:445–448PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Nageotte J (1906) The pars intermedia or nervus intermedius of Wrisberg, and the bulbo-pontine gustatory nucleus in man. Rev Neurol Psychiatr 4:472–488Google Scholar
  175. Nakajima Y, Utsumi H, Takahashi H (1983) Ipsilateral disturbance of taste due to pontine hemorrhage. J Neurol 229:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Ngwa EC, Zeeh C, Messoudi A, Büttner-Ennever JA, Horn AKE (2014) Delineation of motoneuron groups supplying individual eye muscles in the human oculomotor nucleus. Front Neuroanat 8:2Google Scholar
  177. Norgren R (1995) Gustatory system. In: Paxinos G (ed) The rat nervous system, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 751–771Google Scholar
  178. O’Doherty J, Rolls ET, Francis S, Bowtell R, McGlone F (2001) Representation of pleasant and aversive taste in the human brain. J Neurophysiol 85:1315–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Ogawa H, Ito SI, Nomura T (1985) Two distinct projection areas from tongue nerves in the frontal operculum of macaque monkeys as revealed with evoked potential mapping. Neurosci Res 2:447–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Ogawa H, Ito SI, Nomura T (1989) Oral cavity representation at the frontal operculum of macaque monkeys. Neurosci Res 6:283–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Olszewski J (1952) The thalamus of Macaca mulatta. An atlas for use with the stereotaxic instrument. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  182. Olszewski J, Baxter D (1954) Cytoarchitecture of the human brain stem. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  183. Ongerboer de Visser BW (1980) The corneal reflex: electrophysiological and anatomical data in man. Prog Neurobiol 15:71–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ongerboer de Visser BW, Kuypers HGJM (1978) Late blink reflex changes in lateral medullary lesions. An electrophysiological and neuro-anatomical study of Wallenberg’s syndrome. Brain 101:285–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Onoda K, Ikeda M (1999) Gustatory disturbance due to cerebrovascular disorder. Laryngoscope 109:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. O’Rahilly R (1986) Gardner-Gray-O’Rahilly, anatomy: a regional study of human structure, 5th edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  187. Osis JG, Baloh RW (1992) Vertigo and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome. Neurology 42:1274–1279Google Scholar
  188. Pasqualetti M, Rijli FM (2001) Homeobox gene mutations and brain-stem developmental disorders: learning from knockout mice. Curr Opin Neurol 14:177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Paxinos G, Huang X-F (1995) Atlas of the human brain stem. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  190. Paxinos G, Huang X-F, Sengul G, Watson C (2012) Organization of brainstem nuclei. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G (eds) The human nervous system, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 260–327Google Scholar
  191. Penfield W, Faulk M (1955) The insula. Further observations on its function. Brain 78:445–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Perlia R (1889) Die Anatomie des Oculomotoriuscentrums beim Menschen. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Ophthalmol 35:287–308Google Scholar
  193. Peterson BW, Richmond FJ (1988) Control of head movement. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  194. Pieh C, Lengyel D, Neff A, Fretz C, Gottlob I (2002) Brain stem hypoplasia in familial congenital horizontal gaze paralysis (FCGP) and kyphoscoliosis. Neurology 59:462–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Pierrot-Deseilligny C (2011) Nuclear, internuclear and supranuclear ocular motor disorders. Hb Clin Neurol 102:319–331Google Scholar
  196. Pierrot-Deseilligny C (2001) Eye movement abnormalities. In: Bogousslavsky J, Caplan LR (eds) Stroke Syndromes, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 76–86Google Scholar
  197. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Goasguen J (1984) Isolated abducens nucleus damage due to histiocytosis X. Electro-oculographic analysis and physiological deductions. Brain 107:1019–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Chain F, Serdaru M, Gray F, Lhermitte F (1981a) The ‘one-and-a-half’ syndrome: electro-oculographic analyses of five cases with deduction about the physiologic mechanisms of lateral gaze. Brain 104:665–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Schaison M, Bousser MG, Brunet P (1981b) Syndrome nucléaire du nerf moteur oculaire commun: À propos de deux observations cliniques. Rev Neurol (Paris) 137:217–222Google Scholar
  200. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Chain F, Gray F, Serdaru M, Escourolle R, Lhermitte F (1982) Parinaud’s syndrome: electro-oculographic and anatomical analysis of six vascular cases with deductions about vertical gaze organization in the premotor structures. Brain 105:667–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Gray F, Brunet O (1986) Infarcts of both inferior parietal lobules with impairment of visually guided eye movements, peripheral visual inattention and optic ataxia. Brain 109:81–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Gautier JC, Loron P (1988) Acquired ocular motor apraxia due to bilateral fronto-parietal infarcts. Ann Neurol 23:199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Gaymard B, Müri R, Rivaud S (1997) Cerebral ocular motor signs. J Neurol 244:65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Milea D, Müri R (2004) Eye movement control by the cerebral cortex. Curr Opin Neurol 17:17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Porter JD, Guthrie BL, Sparks DL (1983) Innervation of monkey extraocular muscles: localization of sensory and motor neurons by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 218:208–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Porter JD, Burns LA, May PJ (1989) Morphological substrate for eyelid movements: innervation and structure of primate levator palpebrae superioris and orbicularis oculi muscles. J Comp Neurol 287:64–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pritchard TC (2012) Gustatory system. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G (eds) The human nervous system, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1187–1218Google Scholar
  208. Pritchard TC, Norgren R (2004) Gustatory system. In: Paxinos G, Mai JK (eds) The human nervous system, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1171–1196Google Scholar
  209. Pritchard TC, Hamilton R, Morse J, Norgren R (1986) Projections from thalamic gustatory and lingual areas in the monkey, Macaca fascicularis. J Comp Neurol 244:213–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Pritchard TC, Hamilton R, Norgren R (1989) Neural coding of gustatory information in the thalamus of Macaca mulatta. J Neurophysiol 61:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Pritchard TC, Hamilton R, Norgren R (2000) Projections of the parabrachial nucleus in the Old World monkey. Exp Neurol 165:101–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Prosiegel M, Holing R, Heintze M, Wagner-Sonntag E, Wiseman K (2005) The localization of central pattern generators for swallowing in humans. Acta Neurochir 93(Suppl):85–88Google Scholar
  213. Puelles López L, Martínez Pérez S, Martínez de la Torre M (2008) Neuroanatomía. Médica Panamericana, Buenos Aires, Madrid (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  214. Puelles L, Tvrdik P, Martínez-de-la-Torre M (2019) The postmigratory alar topography of visceral cranial nerve efferents challenges the classical model of hindbrain columns. Anat Rec 302:485–504Google Scholar
  215. Ranalli PJ, Sharpe JA, Fletcher WA (1988) Palsy of upward and downward saccadic pursuit and vestibular movements with a unilateral midbrain lesion: Physiopathologic correlations. Neurology 38:114–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rivaud S, Müri RM, Gaymard B, Vermersch AI, Pierrot-Deseilligny C (1994) Eye movement disorders after frontal eye field lesions in humans. Exp Brain Res 102:110–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Rolls ET (2012) The emotional systems. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G (eds) The human nervous system, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1328–1350Google Scholar
  218. Rolls ET, Baylis LL (1994) Gustatory, olfactory, and visual convergence within the primate orbitofrontal cortex. J Neurosci 14:5437–5452PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. Rolls ET, Yaxley S, Sienkiewicz ZJ (1990) Gustatory responses of single neurons in the caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. J Neurophysiol 64:1055–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rolls ET, Critchley HD, Nakeman EA, Mason R (1996) Responses of neurons in the primate taste cortex to the glutamate ion and to inosine 5′-monophosphate. Physiol Behav 59:991–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rossel M, Capecchi MR (1999) Mice mutants for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the hindbrain and defects in craniofacial development. Development 126:5027–5040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Rucker JC (2011) Normal and abnormal lid function. Handb Clin Neurol 102:403–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sadjadpour K, Brodal A (1968) The vestibular nuclei in man. A morphological study in the light of experimental findings in the cat. J Hirnforsch 10:299–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Satoda T, Takahashi O, Murakami C, Uchida T, Mizuno N (1996) The sites of origin and termination of afferent and efferent compartments in the lingual and pharyngeal branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Neurosci Res 24:385–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Schiller PH, True SD, Conway JL (1980) Deficits in eye movements following frontal eye-field and superior colliculus ablations. J Neurophysiol 44:1175–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Schmidtke K, Büttner-Ennever JA (1992) Nervous control of eyelid function – a review of clinical, experimental and physiological data. Brain 115:227–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schuknecht HF (1993) Pathology of the ear. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  228. Schwartz TH, Lycette CA, Yoon SS, Kargman DE (1995) Clinicodariographic evidence for oculomotor fascicular anatomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 59:338–340PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. Sicotte NL, Salamon G, Shattuck DW, Hageman N, Rüb U, Salamon N et al (2006) Diffusion tensor MRI shows abnormal brainstem crossing fibers associated with ROBO3 mutations. Neurology 67:519–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Skarf B (2005) Normal and abnormal eyelid function. In: Miller NR, Newman NJ, Biousse V, Kersing W (eds) Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1177–1229Google Scholar
  231. Small DM (2010) Taste representation in the human insula. Brain Struct Funct 214:551–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Small DM, Jones-Gotman M, Zatorre RJ, Petrides M, Evans AC (1997) A role for the right anterior temporal lobe in taste quality recognition. J Neurosci 17:5136–5142PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Small DM, Zald DH, Jones-Gotman M, Zatorre RJ, Pardo JV, Frey S, Petrides M (1999) Human cortical gustatory areas: a review of functional neuroimaging data. Neuroreport 10:7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Smith P, Curthoys I (1989) Mechanisms of recovery following unilateral labyrinthectomy: a review. Brain Res Rev 14:155–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Steiger HJ, Büttner-Ennever JA (1979) Oculomotor nucleus afferents in the monkey demonstrated with horseradish peroxidase. Brain Res 160:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Strassman A, Evinger LC, McCrea RA, Baker RG, Highstein SM (1987) Anatomy and physiology of intracellularly labelled omnipause neurons in the cat and squirrel monkey. Exp Brain Res 67:436–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Suárez C, Diaz C, Tolivia J, Alvarez JC, González del Rey C, Navarro A (1997) Morphometric analysis of the human vestibular nuclei. Anat Rec 247:271–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Suzuki Y, Büttner-Ennever JA, Straumann D, Hepp K, Hess BJM, Henn V (1995) Deficits in torsional and vertical rapid eye movements and shift of Listing’s plane after uni- and bilateral lesions of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Exp Brain Res 106:215–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Tarlov E (1969) The rostral projections of the primate vestibular nuclei. An experimental study in macaque, baboon and chimpanzee. J Comp Neurol 135:27–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Tarlov E (1970) Organization of vestibulo-oculomotor projections in the cat. Brain Res 20:159–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. ten Donkelaar HJ, Lohman AHM, Keyser A, van der Vliet AM (2007a) Het centrale zenuwstelsel. In: ten Donkelaar HJ, Lohman AHM, Moorman AFM (eds) Klinische Anatomie en Embryologie (in Dutch), 3rd edn. Elsevier, Maarssen, pp 981–1141Google Scholar
  242. ten Donkelaar HJ, Vermeij-Keers C, Lohman AHM (2007b) Hoofd en hals. In: ten Donkelaar HJ, Lohman AHM, Moorman AFM (eds) Klinische Anatomie en Embryologie (in Dutch), 3rd edn. Elsevier, Maarssen, pp 545–727Google Scholar
  243. ten Donkelaar HJ, Cruysberg JRM, Pennings R, Lammens M (2014a) Development and developmental disorders of the brain stem. In: ten Donkelaar HJ, Lammens M (eds) Hori a clinical neuroembryology: development and developmental disorders of the human central nervous system, 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London, pp 321–370Google Scholar
  244. ten Donkelaar HJ, Vermeij-Keers C, Mathijssen IMJ (2014b) The neural crest and craniofacial malformations. In: ten Donkelaar HJ, Lammens M (eds) Hori a clinical Neuroembryology: development and developmental disorders of the human central nervous system, 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London, pp 219–269Google Scholar
  245. ten Donkelaar HJ, Yamada S, Shiota K, van der Vliet T (2014c) Overview of the development of the human brain and spinal cord. In: ten Donkelaar HJ, Lammens M (eds) Hori a clinical Neuroembryology: development and developmental disorders of the human central nervous system, 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  246. ten Donkelaar HJ, Broman J, Neumann PE, Puelles L, Riva A, Tubbs RS, Kachlik D (2017) Towards a Terminologia Neuroanatomica. Clin Anat 30:145–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. ten Donkelaar HJ, Kachlik D, Tubbs RS (2018) An illustrated Terminologia Neuroanatomica: a concise encyclopedia of human neuroanatomy. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  248. Thurston SE, Leigh RJ, Crawford T, Thompson A, Kennard C (1988) Two distinct deficits of visual tracking caused by unilateral lesions of cerebral cortex in humans. Ann Neurol 23:266–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Tischfield MA, Bosley TM, Salih MA, Alozainy IA, Sener EM, Nester MJ et al (2005) Homozygous HOXA1 mutations disrupt human brainstem, inner ear, cardiovascular and cognitive development. Nat Genet 37:1035–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. TNA (2017) Terminologia Neuroanatomica. FIPAT.library.dal.ca. Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology
  251. Tomás-Roca L, Corral-San-Miguel R, Aroca P, Puelles L, Marín F (2016) Crypto-rhombomeres of the mouse medulla oblongata, defined by molecular and morphological features. Brain Struct Funct 221:815–838Google Scholar
  252. Törk I, McRitchie DA, Rikard-Bell GC, Paxinos G (1990) Autonomic regulatory centers in the medulla oblongata. In: Paxinos G (ed) The human nervous system. Academic, San Diego, pp 251–259Google Scholar
  253. Uemura M, Matsuda K, Kuma M, Takeuchi Y, Matsushima M, Mizuno N (1979) Topographical arrangement of hypoglossal motoneurons: an HRP study in the cat. Neurosci Lett 13:99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Uesaka Y, Nose H, Ida M, Takagi A (1998) The pathway of gustatory fibers of the human ascends ipsilaterally in the pons. Neurology 50:827–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Ugolini G (1995) Specificity of rabies virus as a transneuronal tracer of motor networks: transfer from hypoglossal motoneurons to connected second-order and higher-order central nervous system cell groups. J Comp Neurol 356:457–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Urban PP, Wicht S, Marx J, Mitrovic S, Fitzek C, Hopf HC (1998) Isolated voluntary facial paresis due to pontine ischemia. Neurology 50:1859–1862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Urban PP, Wicht S, Fitzek S, Marx J, Thömke F, Fitzek C, Hopf HC (1999) Ipsilateral facial weakness in upper medullary infarction – supranuclear or infranuclear origin? J Neurol 246:798–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Urban PP, Wicht S, Vucorevic G, Fitzek S, Marx J, Thömke F et al (2001a) The course of corticofacial projections in the human brainstem. Brain 124:1866–1876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Urban PP, Wicht S, Vukurevic G, Fitzek C, Stoeter P, Massinger C, Hopf HC (2001b) Dysarthria in ischemic stroke. Lesion topography, clinicoradiologic correlation and etiology. Neurology 56:1021–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. van Buskirk C (1945) The seventh nerve complex. J Comp Neurol 82:303–333Google Scholar
  261. van der Werf F, Aramideh M, Ongerboer de Visser BW, Baljet B, Speelman JD, Otto JA (1997) A retrograde double fluorescent tracing study of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle in the cynomolgus monkey. Exp Brain Res 113:174–179Google Scholar
  262. Veldhuizen MG, Albrecht J, Zelano C, Boesveldt S, Breslin P, Lundstrom JN (2011) Identification of human gustatory cortex by activation likelihood estimation. Hum Brain Mapp 32:2256–2266PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Vieille-Grosjean I, Hunt P, Gulisano M, Boncinelli E, Thorogood P (1997) Branchial HOX gene expression and human craniofacial development. Dev Biol 183:49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Vuilleumier P, Bogousslavsky J, Regli F (1995) Infarction of the lower brainstem. Clinical, aetiological and MRI-topographical correlations. Brain 118:1013–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Warwick R (1953) Representation of the extra-ocular muscles in the oculomotor nuclei of the monkey. J Comp Neurol 98:449–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Watson C, Shimogori T, Puelles L (2017) Mouse Fgf8-Cre-LacZ lineage analysis defines the territory of the postnatal mammalian isthmus. J Comp Neurol 525:2782–2799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Watson C, Bartholomaeus C, Puelles L (2019) Time for radical changes in brain stem nomenclature applying the lessons from developmental gene patterns. Front Neuroanat 13:10PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. Williams NP, Roland PS, Yellin W (1997) Vestibular evaluation in patients with early multiple sclerosis. Am J Otol 18:93–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Wilson VJ, Melvill Jones G (1979) Mammalian vestibular physiology. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  270. Wilson VJ, Peterson BW (1988) Vestibular and reticular projections to the neck. In: Peterson BW, Richmond FJ (eds) Control of head movements. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 129–140Google Scholar
  271. Wurst W, Bally-Cuif L (2001) Neural plate patterning: upstream and downstream of the isthmic organizer. Nat Rev Neurosci 2:99–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Wuyts FL, Furman J, Vanspauwen R, Van de Heyning P (2007) Vestibular function testing. Curr Opin Neurol 20:19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Yamashita M, Yamamoto T (2001) Aberrant pyramidal tract in the medial lemniscus of the human brain stem: Normal distribution and pathological changes. Eur Neurol 45:75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Zald DH, Pardo JV (1999) The functional neuroanatomy of voluntary swallowing. Ann Neurol 46:281–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Zald DH, Lee JT, Fluegel KW, Pardo JV (1998) Aversive gustatory stimulation activates limbic circuits in humans. Brain 121:1143–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Zwergal A, Büttner-Ennever J, Brandt T, Strupp M (2008) An ipsilateral vestibulothalamic tract adjacent to the medial lemniscus in humans. Brain 131:2928–2935PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans J. ten Donkelaar
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Kachlík
    • 2
  • Johannes R. M. Cruysberg
    • 3
  • Ton van der Vliet
    • 4
  • Peter van Domburg
    • 5
  1. 1.935 Department of NeurologyRadboud University Medical Centre and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and BehaviourNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, Second Faculty of MedicineCharles UniversityPraha 5Czech Republic
  3. 3.400 Department of OphthalmologyRadboud University Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyUniversity Medical Centre GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyZuyderland Medical CentreSittard-GeleenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations