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Accelerated Breeding of Plants: Methods and Applications

  • Satbir Singh Gosal
  • Dharminder Pathak
  • Shabir Hussain Wani
  • Suruchi Vij
  • Mamta Pathak
Chapter

Abstract

Agriculture is facing steep challenges of food, nutritional and water security, climate instability, nutrient depletion, high input costs and reduction in cultivable land. Plant breeders need to constantly develop new sustainable varieties with high yields, better quality, high resource-use efficiency, pest/disease resistance and tolerance to abiotic stresses. In the current scenario of climate change and global warming, there is rapid emergence of new races of insect pests and new pathotypes of disease-causing agents. Minor insect pests/pathogens are rapidly emerging as major ones. Heat and drought stresses are becoming serious threats. Under current WTO regime, farmers wish for new superior varieties, suitable not only for local consumption but also for export purposes. The quest for sustainable agriculture can benefit greatly from powerful new technologies that accelerate plant breeding. In the current era of Breeding 4.0 where specific parts in the genome can be targeted, technological advances along with the data revolution greatly improve the capacity of plant. Geneticists and breeders need to develop durable varieties. Innovative techniques such as doubled haploidy, micropropagation, somaclonal variation, embryo culture, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted background selection, genomic selection, high-throughput genotyping, high-throughput phenotyping, reverse breeding, transgenic breeding, shuttle breeding, speed breeding, genome editing, advanced quantitative genetics technologies and intentional and standardized data management are now increasingly being used to supplement/complement the conventional approaches for accelerating plant breeding.

Keywords

Accelerated breeding Crop improvement Speed breeding Doubled haploidy Genome editing Transgenic breeding Genomic selection Phenomics High-throughput genotyping High-throughput phenotyping Genetic mapping 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  3. 3.Mountain Research Center for Field Crops, KhudwaniSher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  4. 4.Department of Vegetable SciencePunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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