The Evidence of Mannaean in Western Hasanlu

  • Ali BinandehEmail author
Part of the University of Tehran Science and Humanities Series book series (UTSHS)


Kelishin pass is one of the famous routes in First Millennium B.C. in the northwest of Iran. There are three Urartian steles, Merga Karvan in Iran side, kelishin stele, located in the Iran-Iraq border on the road towards the region of Rawanduz and finally Topzawa stele that located in Rawanduz in the Iraq side. Kani kisal the ancient site located in the entrance of the strait. This site attributed to Urartian Period in the past, as the result of civil works some Mannaean material culture was found in recent years. One of the most interesting problems is the relation between the Urartian material culture and Mannaean material culture. Sargon II’s Eighth Campaign, 714 B.C. into the region resulted in intensive defeat of Urartians which ended the Urartian dominant on the eastern, southern and western regions of Urmia Lake and they just dominated the north of the Urmia Lake. The first half of the seventh century is when Mannaean seized the power in that area, the time during which it was expanded more than ever, and Ushnuyeh region was dominated by Mannaean. If we accept that Hasanlu IV not belonged to Mannaean and Gilzanu to be located at Solduz valley and, in the end of ninth century B.C. Urartu was expanded in this area until 714 B.C. After this period Mannaean control this region.


Kani kisal Mannaean Soth of Urmia Lake Urartu Hasanlu 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchaeologyBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran

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