Advertisement

Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Foreign Compounds

  • Chang-Hwei Chen
Chapter
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Foreign compounds that humans ingest or inhale can be classified into two categories, hydrophiles (soluble in water) and lipophiles (soluble in lipid medium), basing on their solubilities in water. Membrane lipid bilayers serve as physical barriers for xenobiotics transporting across cell membranes. Transport mechanism for hydrophilic compounds is distinctive from lipophilic substances. Xenobiotics are transported across cell membranes through mechanisms such as passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport. Metabolic pathways consist of activation metabolism and detoxification metabolism. Metabolites are transported to external cell compartments before excretion from the body by renal, hepatic and skin.

Bibliography

  1. Borst P, Elferink RO (2002) Mammalian ABC transporters in health and disease. Annu Rev Biochem 71:537–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burckhardt BC, Burckhardt G (2003) Transport of organic anions across the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule cells. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 146:95–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buxton ILO, Benet LZ (2011) Pharmacokinetics: the dynamics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. In: Brunton LL et al (eds) Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Caldwell J, Gardner I, Swales N (1995) An introduction to drug disposition: the basic principles of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Toxicol Pathol 23(2):102–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen CH (2012) Activation and detoxification enzymes: functions and implications. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen LS, Chen CH (1986) Energetic studies of lactose active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles. Arch Biochem Biophys 246:515–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dean M, Rzhetsky A, Allikmets R (2001) The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Genome Res 11:1156–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dresser MJ, Leabman MK, Giacomini KM (2001) Transporters involved in the elimination of drugs in the kidney: organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters. J Pharm Sci 90:397–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giacomini KM, Sugiyama Y (2011) Membrane transporters and drug response. In: Brunton LL et al (eds) Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Hediger MA, Romero MF, Peng JB et al (2004) The ABCs of solute carriers: physiological, pathological and therapeutic implications of human membrane transport proteins. Pflugers Arch 447:465–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koepsell H (1998) Organic cation transporters in intestine, kidney, liver, and brain. Annu Rev Physiol 60:243–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lehman-McKeeman LD (2010) Absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxicants, Chap. 5. In: Casarett & Doull’s essentials of toxicology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-Hwei Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Health and the Environment and Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity at Albany, State University of New York, 5 University PlaceRensselaerUSA

Personalised recommendations