Induction of Metabolic Enzymes for Health Effects
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Oxidative stress occurs when xenobiotic metabolic reactive intermediates such as reactive oxygen species or free radicals are neither readily detoxified by detoxification enzymes nor compensated for by the body’s antioxidant defense systems. Enzyme modulators are small molecules that exhibit induction or inhibition effects on activation or detoxification enzymes. The induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes is an issue of complexity. Minimal xenobiotic toxicity is generally found in either a higher expression of detoxification enzyme activity or a fine balance rate between activation and detoxification expressions. Inducers of detoxification enzymes act as indirect antioxidants by boosting the body’s antioxidant systems, thus exerting antioxidant activities. Roles of Nrf2 and ARE on enzyme modulation and lifestyle modulation of metabolic enzymes are also discussed.
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