Nrf2-ARE Pathway: Defense Against Oxidative Stress
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Oxidative stress occurs when the production of reactive chemical intermediates during bioactivation exceeds the ability of metabolic detoxification enzymes and endogenous antioxidants to neutralize them. To maintain the balance between bioactivation and detoxification, living cells maintain an inducible antioxidant response pathway, which activity is largely regulated by nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 governs the expression of many detoxification enzymes and antioxidants and acts as a sensor of oxidative stress. Nrf2 complex binds to antioxidant response elements (ARE). Nrf2-Keap1-ARE pathways in the absence and presence of oxidative stress are presented. Cytoprotection and induction of Nrf2-ARE pathway are also discussed.
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