Advertisement

Restorative Justice Implemented by the Judiciary in Brazil: Results and the Role of the Victim

  • Alline Pedra Jorge Birol
Chapter
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

This paper discusses Restorative Justice in Brazil, based on research findings about the role of Judiciary in its implementation and impact in lives of victims and offenders. It discusses its therapeutic impact and the role of crime victims within such programs and practices. It demonstrates that Restorative Justice programs implemented by the Judiciary in Brazil are mainly devoted to restoring peace and harmony and preventing deterrence, resulting in practices which do not promote victims’ participation, empowerment or healing. Nevertheless, such practices demonstrated positive results in regard to participation of offenders and their community. It concludes that Brazil has its own way of implementing restorative justice. Finally, suggests alternatives to enhance victims’ participation in the Restorative Justice in Brazil and to enlarge its application, with a focus on victims’ needs.

Keywords

Restorative justice Healing Victims Rehabilitation Offenders 

References

  1. Achutti, D., & Pallamolla, R. (2012). Restorative justice in juvenile courts in Brazil: A brief review of Porto Alegre and São Caetano pilot projects. Universitas Psychologica, 11(4), 1093–1104.Google Scholar
  2. Act 8.069/1990. Version of 13 July, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Act 9.099/1995. Version of 26 September, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. Act 11.340/2006. Version of 07 August, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. Act 12.594/2012. Version of 18 January, 2012.Google Scholar
  6. Ahlin, E. M., Gibbs, J. C., Kavanaugh, Jr., P. R. & Lee, J. (2017). Support for restorative justice in a sample of U.S. university students. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61, 229–245Google Scholar
  7. Barter, D. (2009). Toward peace and justice in Brazil: Dominic Barter and restorative circles. Retrieved from https://www.iirp.edu/news/toward-peace-and-justice-in-brazil-dominic-barter-and-restorative-circles.
  8. Bazemore, G. (1999). Crime victims, restorative justice and the juvenile court: exploring victim needs and involvement in the response to youth crime. International Review of Victimology, 6 (4), 295–320.Google Scholar
  9. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Christie, N. (1977). Conflict as property. The British Journal of Criminology, 17 (1), 01–15.Google Scholar
  11. Decker, S. H., Alarid, L. F., and Katz, C. M. (Eds.) (2003). Controversies in criminal justice . Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  12. Dignan, J. (1992). Repairing the damage: Can reparation work in the service of diversion? The British Journal of Criminology, 32 (4), 453–472.Google Scholar
  13. Fattah, Ezzat A. (2000). Victimology: Past, present and future. Criminologie, 33 (1), 17–46. Retrieved from  https://doi.org/10.7202/004720ar
  14. Friday, Paul (2003). Restorative justice: The impact on crime. Paper submitted for the XIth International Symposium on Victimology 13 -18 July, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.victimology.co.za/papers.htm.Google Scholar
  15. Gaboury, M.T. (2006, August). “Corrections-Based Victim Services and Victim Awareness Programs”. Presented at 2nd North American Post Graduate Course on Victimology and Victim Assistance, World Society of Victimology and University of Central Florida.Google Scholar
  16. Gehm, John R. (1987). The function of forgiveness in the criminal justice system. In Messmer, H. & Otto, H. U. Restorative justice on trial: Pitfalls and potentials of victim-offender mediation - International research perspectives. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, N., Walgrave, L. & Braithwaite, J. (2004). Emotional dynamics in restorative conferences. Theoretical Criminology, 8, 191–210. Retrieved June 27, 2008, from Sage Publications data base.Google Scholar
  18. Hulsman, L. & Célis, J. B. (1997). Penas perdidas – o sistema penal em questão. 2ª. ed. (Translated by Maria Lúcia Karam) Rio de Janeiro: Luam.Google Scholar
  19. Johnstone, G. (2002). Restorative justice: Ideas, values, debates. USA: William Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Languin, N. & Robert, C. N. (2008). Quel rôle pour la victime dans le procès pénal? Revue Plädoyer. Magazin für Recht und Politik, 3, 56-61.Google Scholar
  21. Languin, N., Kellerhals, J. & Robert, C. N. (2006). L’art de punir: les représentations sociales d’une “juste” peine. Bâle: Schulthess.Google Scholar
  22. Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2005). The effectiveness of restorative justice practices: A meta-analysis. The Prison Journal, 85(2), p. 127–144.Google Scholar
  23. Lerner, M. J. (1980). The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Levrant, S., Cullen, F. T., Fulton, B. & Wozniak, J. F. (2003). Reconsidering restorative justice. The corruption of benevolence revisited? In S. H. Decker, L. F. Alarid & C. M. Katz (Eds.) Controversies in criminal justice, (pp. 280–293). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  25. Lindner, Charles (1996). VORP: An unproven fringe movement. Perspectives, 20, 15–17.Google Scholar
  26. Marshall, T. & Merry, S. (1990). Crime and accountability: Victim-offender mediation in practice. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  27. Pedra, J. A. (2010). Criminal justice, victim support centers, and the emotional well-being of crime victims. Originally published at: Thesis, University of Lausanne. Available at: https://serval.unil.ch/resource/serval:BIB_7990AC6CCB61.P001/REF.
  28. Pedra, J. A. (2005). Em busca da satisfação dos interesses da vítima penal. Rio de Janeiro: Lumen Juris.Google Scholar
  29. Pedra, J. A. & Aebi, M. (2009). Feelings that offenders have towards their victims: role‐overlap from a psychological perspective. In F. W. Winkel, P. C. Friday, G. F. Kirchhoff & R. M. Letschert. Victimization in a multi-disciplinary key: Recent advances in Victimology (pp. 355–384). Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Pranis, K. (1996). A state initiative toward restorative justice: The Minnesota experience. In B. Galaway & J. Hudson. (Eds.), Restorative justice: International perspectives. (pp. 493–504). N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  31. Reeves, H. (1989). The victim support perspective. In M. Wright & B. Galaway (Eds.), Mediation and criminal justice. victims, offenders and community (pp. 44–55). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Rosenberg, M. B. (2006). Comunicação Não-Violenta: técnicas para aprimorar relacionamentos pessoais e profissionais. São Paulo: Ágora.Google Scholar
  33. Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Colledge, E., Dignan, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. & Sorsby, A. (2006). Situating restorative justice within criminal justice. Theoretical Criminology, 10 (4), 505–532. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from Sage Publications data base.Google Scholar
  34. Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Dignan, J., Edwards, L., Hibbert, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. & Sorsby, A. (2008). Does restorative justice affect reconviction? The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes. Ministry of Justice Research Series 10/08. London: Ministry of Justice, at http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf.
  35. Sherman, L. W. (2003). Reason for emotion: Reinventing justice with theories, innovations, and research – the American Society of Criminology 2002 Presidential Address. Criminology, 41 (1), 1–37.Google Scholar
  36. Sherman, L. W., Strang, H., Angel, C., Woods, D., Barnes, G. C., Bennett, S. & Inkpen, N. (2005). Effects of face-to-face restorative justice on victims of crime in four randomized, controlled trials. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1 (3), 367–395.Google Scholar
  37. Strang, H. (2002). Repair or revenge: Victims and restorative justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  38. Tondonato, P. & Erez, E. (1994). Crime punishment and victim distress. International Review of Victimology, 3 (1, 2), 33–55.Google Scholar
  39. Umbreit, M. S. (1998). Restorative justice through victim-offender mediation: A multi-site assessment. Western Criminology Review, 1 (1). Retrieved from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v1n1/umbreit.html.
  40. Umbreit, M. S. (1994). Victim empowerment through mediation: The impact of victim offender mediation in four cities. Perspectives Special Issue, 25–30.Google Scholar
  41. Umbreit, M., Coates, R. & Vos, B. (2004). Restorative justice versus community justice: Clarifying a muddle or generating confusion? Contemporary Justice Review 7(1): 81–89.Google Scholar
  42. Umbreit, M. S.; Bradshaw, W. & Coates, R. B. (1999). Victims of severe violence meet the offender: Restorative justice through dialogue. International Review of Victimology, 6 (4), 321–343.Google Scholar
  43. van Dijk, J. J. M. (1986). Victim rights: A right to better services or a right to active participation. In J. J. M. van Dijk, C. Haffmans, F. Rütter, J. Schutte & S. Stolwijk (Eds.). Criminal law in action:Aan overview of current issues in Western societies (pp. 351–375). Arnhem: Gouda Quint.Google Scholar
  44. Walgrave, L. (1999). La justice restaurative: à la recherche d’une théorie et d’un programme. Crimonologie, 32 (1), 07–29. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from Érudit data base.Google Scholar
  45. Wemmers, J. A. M. (1999). Victim notification and public support for the criminal justice system. International Review of Victimology, 6 (3), 167–178.Google Scholar
  46. Wemmers, J. A. M. (2003). Introduction à la victimologie. Les presses de l’Université de Montreal, Coll. Paramètres.Google Scholar
  47. Wemmers, J. & Cyr, K. (2004). Victims’ perspectives on restorative justice: How much involvement are victims looking for? 11 International Review of Victimology, p. 259–274.Google Scholar
  48. Wexler, D. B. & Winick, B. J. (1991). Essays in Therapeutic Jurisprudence. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. Winick, B. J. (2008). Therapeutic jurisprudence and victims of crime. Victim participation in justice: A therapeutic jurisdiction perspective. Retrieved from Social Science Research Network Website: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1102350.
  50. Wright, M. (2003). Preventing harm, promoting harmony. In P. Davies, P. Francis & V. Jupp (Eds.), Victimization: Theory, research and policy (pp. 101–120). New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  51. Wright, M. (2002). The court as last resort. Victim-sensitive community–based responses to crime. British Journal of Criminology, 42, 654–667. Retrieved April 30, 2007, from Oxford Journals data base.Google Scholar
  52. Zedner, L. (2002). Victims. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan & R. Reiner (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of criminology. 3rd edition, (pp.419–456). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Zehr, H. (1990). Changing lenses: A new focus for crime and justice. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press.Google Scholar
  54. Zehr, H. & Gohar, A. (2003). The little book of restorative justice. Pennsylvania, USA: Good Books, Intercourse.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alline Pedra Jorge Birol
    • 1
  1. 1.Attorney-at-Law, HS & Crime ConsultancyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations