Psychosocial Hazards Evaluation in ICU Workers

  • Diana FrançaEmail author
  • Pietro Scaramuzzo
  • Ema Sacadura-Leite
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 277)


Psychosocial hazards evaluation is fundamental in healthcare settings, where workers are particularly exposed to this kind of risk factors, due to the nature of their work. The aim of this study was to assess psychosocial hazards in healthcare workers of Intensive Care Units (ICU). We applied a questionnaire including sociodemographic data, the COPSOQ II short version and the MBI-HSS to 93 workers of ICU and 20 of an Occupational Health Department, to compare the two of them. We found out that ICU workers had worse results in 8/26 dimensions of the COPSOQ and higher levels of emotional exhaustion. The only domain with better results was the one regarding meaning of work. The MBI-HSS evaluation showed a high rate of workers with emotional exhaustion (43.01%), mostly in men, but low personal accomplishment and high levels of depersonification were found in 25.81 and 12.90%.


Psychosocial hazards Healthcare workers Intensive Care Units 


  1. 1.
    Cox, T. Griffiths, A.: The nature and measurement of work stress. In: Wilson, J.J.R., Corlett, E.N. Evaluation of human work. 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, London (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Sacadura-Leite, E., Sousa-Uva, A.: Stressores ocupacionais, stress e burnout em profissionais de saúde. In: Manual de Saúde Ocupacional em hospitais, 1st edn. Diário de Bordo, Lisboa (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chuang, C.H., Tseng, P.C., Lin, C.Y., Lin, K.H., Chen, Y.Y.: Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals—a systematic review. Medicine 95(50), e5629 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marôco, J., Marôco, A.L., Leite, E., Bastos, C., Vazão, M.J., Campos, J.: Burnout em profissionais de saúde portugueses: uma análise a nível nacional. Acta Med. Port. 29(1), 24–30 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sacadura-Leite, E., Sousa-Uva, A., Ferreira, S., Costa, P., Passos, A.: Working conditions and high emotional exhaustion in hospital nurses. Rev. Bras. Med. Trab. 17(1), 69–75 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Costa, P.L., Passos, A.M., Silva, A.S., Sacadura-Leite, E., Tavares, S.M., Spanu, F., et al.: Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality of care in the hospital setting across the Europe: the role of teamwork and positivity. JWOP 30, 105–112 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moura, P., Serranheira, F., Sacadura-Leite, E.: Psychosocial risks in psychiatry and anaesthesiology residents in a Portuguese General Hospital. Med. Lav. 107(2), 129–140 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ballester-Arias, A.R., García, A.M.: Occupational exposure to psychosocial factors and presence of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing staff: a review of studies and meta-analysis. Rev. Esp. Salud. Publica 7, 91 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva, J., Soares, R., Costa, F., Ramos, D., Lima, F., Teixeira, L.: Psychosocial factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing workers in intensive care units. Rev. Bras. Ter. Intensiva 27(2), 125–133 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silva, C.S.: Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Fundação para a ciência e teconologia PTDC/SAU-ESA/66163/2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malasch, C., Jackson, S., Leiter, M.: The Maslasch Burnout Inventory manual. In: Evaluating Stress: A Book of Resources, 1st edn. The Scarecrow Press (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Viotti, S., Converso, D., Loera, B.: Job satisfaction, job burnout and their relationships with work’ and patients’ characteristics: a comparison between intensive care units and not-intensive care units. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon. 34(2 Suppl B), B52–B60 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson-Coyle, L., Opgenorth, D., Bellows, M., Dhaliwal, J., Richardson-Carr, S., Bagshaw, S.M.: Moral distress and burnout among cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit healthcare professionals: a prospective cross-sectional survey. Can. J. Crit. Care Nurs. 27(4), 27–36 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee, S.: A concept analysis of ‘Meaning in work’ and its implications for nursing. J. Adv. Nurs. 71(10), 2258–2267 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lembrechts, L., Dekocker, V., Zanoni, P., Pulignano, V.: A study of the determinants of work-family conflict among hospital nurses in Belgium. Nurs. Manag. 23(7), 898–909 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Michie, S.: Causes and management of stress at work. Occup. Environ. Med. 59(1), 67–72 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., Van Rhenen, W.: How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. J. Organiz. Behav. 30, 893–917 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Sloane, D., Sochalski, J., Silber, J.: Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. JAMA 288(16), 1987–1993 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wisetborisut, A., Angkurawaranon, C., Jiraporncharoen, W., Uaphanthasath, R., Wiwatanadate, P.: Shift work and burnout among health care workers. Occup. Med. 64(4), 279–286 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cañadas-De la Fuente, G., Ortega, E., Ramirez-Baena, L., De la Fuente-Solana, E., Vargas, C., Gómez-Urquiza, J.L.: Gender, marital status, and children as risk factors for Burnout in nurses: a meta-analytic study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15(10), 1–13 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa NorteLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Università degli studi di BariBariItaly
  3. 3.CISP, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations