Thermal Comfort in Bus Cabins: A Review of Parameters and Numerical Investigation

  • Matheus das Neves AlmeidaEmail author
  • Antonio Augusto de Paula Xavier
  • Ariel Orlei Michaloski
  • André Luiz Soares
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 277)


Review studies regarding the thermal comfort of bus cabins haven’t been found in the literature. Thus, this investigation’s objective is to analyze the parameters of thermal comfort that could be subject to modeling in bus cabins. The proposed analysis comprises a brief review of the parameters considered relevant in the standardized thermal comfort models and the survey of these parameters in research directed to the bus environment. To achieve that, searches were conducted on the literature databases Emerald, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Scopus, employing the method of systematic review Ordinatio to find review and research papers in two scopes: the first crossed the keyword bus with the terms Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied, Predicted Mean Vote, Thermal Comfort Model, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Discomfort, and Thermal Stress, as well as the abbreviations PPD and PMV; the second combined the keywords automobile and vehicular with the same terms related to thermal comfort as the first scope. The results identified fifteen papers on thermal comfort in buses, three of which investigated the drivers and that only approached the parameter of air temperature quantitatively. In contrast, passenger studies were more complete because they analyzed all the important parameters. Therefore, this paper concludes that, the researches directed to bus passengers are more grounded in terms of thermal comfort parameters and that although driver studies have their merits, they did not sufficiently represent the complexities of these parameters and, taking that into account, this investigation will function as a guide for future studies of this nature.


Thermal comfort Bus cabins Review of parameters 


  1. 1.
    Nguyen, T., NguyenDinh, N., Lechner, B., Wong, Y.D.: Insight into the lateral ride discomfort thresholds of young-adult bus passengers at multiple postures: Case of Singapore. Case Stud. Transp. Policy. 7, 617–627 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang, K., Zhou, K., Zhang, F.: Evaluating bus transit performance of Chinese cities: developing an overall bus comfort model. Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract. 69, 105–112 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morton, C., Caulfield, B., Anable, J.: Customer perceptions of quality of service in public transport: evidence for bus transit in Scotland. Case Stud. Transp. Policy. 4, 199–207 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lai, W.-T., Chen, C.-F.: Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers—the roles of service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and involvement. Transp. Policy 18, 318–325 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alahmer, A., Mayyas, A., Mayyas, A.A., Omar, M.A., Shan, D.: Vehicular thermal comfort models; a comprehensive review. Appl. Therm. Eng. 31, 995–1002 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Croitoru, C., Nastase, I., Bode, F., Meslem, A., Dogeanu, A.: Thermal comfort models for indoor spaces and vehicles—current capabilities and future perspectives. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 44, 304–318 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yik, F.W.H., Yiu, J., Burnett, J.: Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation design for queuing enclosures in a bus terminus. Build. Serv. Eng. Res. & Technol. 16, 9–16 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shek, K.W., Chan, W.T.: Combined comfort model of thermal comfort and air quality on buses in Hong Kong. Sci. Total Environ. 389, 277–282 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khamis Mansour, M., Musa, M.N., Wan Hassan, M.N., Saqr, K.M., Mansour, M.K., Musa, M.N., Hassan, M.N.W., Saqr, K.M.: Development of novel control strategy for multiple circuit, roof top bus air conditioning system in hot humid countries. Energy Convers. Manag. 49, 1455–1468 (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Velt, K.B., Daanen, H.A.M.: Optimal bus temperature for thermal comfort during a cool day. Appl. Ergon. 62, 72–76 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pagani, R.N., Kovaleski, J.L., Resende, L.M.: Methodi Ordinatio: a proposed methodology to select and rank relevant scientific papers encompassing the impact factor, number of citation, and year of publication. Scientometrics 105, 2109–2135 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhu, X., Lei, L., Wang, X., Zhang, Y.: Air quality and passenger comfort in an air-conditioned bus micro-environment. Environ. Monit. Assess. 190 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pala, U., Oz, H.R.: An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber. Appl. Ergon. 48, 164–176 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lin, T.-P., Hwang, R.-L., Huang, K.-T., Sun, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-C.: Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles. Int. J. Biometeorol. 54, 221–230 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xie, X.-L., Shen, F.-L., Lin, F.: Distributions of air-conditioning air supply parameters and passenger compartment temperature of highway sleeper bus. Chang. Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal Chang. Univ. (Natural Sci. Ed. 30, 93–98 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khamis Mansour, M., Musa, M.N., Hassan, M.N.W., Abdullah, H., Saqr, K.M.: Development of a novel control strategy for a multiple-circuit roof-top bus air-conditioning system in hot humid countries. Int. J. Mech. Mater. Eng. 2, 200–211 (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin, Z., Jiang, F., Chow, T.T., Tsang, C.F., Lu, W.Z.: CFD analysis of ventilation effectiveness in a public transport interchange. Build. Environ. 41, 254–261 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mui, K.W., Shek, K.W.: Influence of in-tunnel environment to in-bus air quality and thermal condition in Hong Kong. Sci. Total Environ. 347, 163–174 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conceição, E.Z.E., Silva, M.C.G., Viegas, D.X.: Airflow around a passenger seated in a bus. HVAC R Res. 3, 311–323 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pimenta, A.M., Assunção, A.Á.: Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Brazil. Appl. Ergon. 47, 236–241 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ismail, A.R., Atikah Abdullah, S.N., Abdullah, A.A., Ab Hamid, M.R., Md. Deros, B.: Relationship between thermal comfort and driving performance among Malaysian bus driver. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 10, 7406–7411 (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Assunção, A., Jardim, R., de Medeiros, A., Assuncao, A., Jardim, R., de Medeiros, A.: Voice complaints among public transport workers in the metropolitan region of belo horizonte, Brazil. Folia Phoniatr. Logop. 65, 266–271 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yao, R., Li, B., Liu, J.: A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort—adaptive predicted mean vote (aPMV). Build. Environ. 44, 2089–2096 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rupp, R.F., Vásquez, N.G., Lamberts, R.: A review of human thermal comfort in the built environment. Energy Build. 105, 178–205 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fanger, P.O.: Thermal Comfort. Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering. Danish Technical Press, Copenhagen (1970)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Djongyang, N., Tchinda, R., Njomo, D.: Thermal comfort: a review paper. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14, 2626–2640 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ole Fanger, P., Toftum, J.: Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. Energy Build. 34, 533–536 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frontczak, M., Wargocki, P.: Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments. Build. Environ. 46, 922–937 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cui, W., Cao, G., Park, J.H., Ouyang, Q., Zhu, Y.: Influence of indoor air temperature on human thermal comfort, motivation and performance. Build. Environ. 68, 114–122 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Simion, M., Socaciu, L., Unguresan, P.: Factors which influence the thermal comfort inside of vehicles. Energy Procedia. 85, 472–480 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ISO, International Organization for Standardization: Ergonomics of the thermal environment-Instruments for measuring physical quantities (ISO 7726) (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thorsson, S., Honjo, T., Lindberg, F., Eliasson, I., Lim, E.-M.: Thermal comfort and outdoor activity in Japanese Urban Public Places. Environ. Behav. 39, 660–684 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ISO, International Organization for Standardization: Ergonomics of the thermal environment-Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria (ISO 7730) (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    ASHRAE, A.S.: Standard 55–2013. Therm. Environ. Cond. Hum. Occup. 58 (2013)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alahmer, A., Abdelhamid, M., Omar, M.: Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins. Appl. Therm. Eng. 36, 126–140 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ISO, International Organization for Standardization: Ergonomics of the thermal environment-Determination of metabolic rate. (ISO 8996) (2004)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    ISO, International Organization for Standardization: Ergonomics of the thermal environment—Estimation of thermal insulation and water vapour resistance of a clothing ensemble. (ISO 9920 2007, Corrected version 2008-11-01) (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade Tecnológica Federal do ParanáPonta GrossaBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Federal do PiauíTeresinaBrazil

Personalised recommendations