Assessment of Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Barbecue Grill Workers

  • Marta Oliveira
  • Sílvia Capelas
  • Cristina Delerue-Matos
  • Isabel Brás Pereira
  • Simone MoraisEmail author
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 277)


Cooks and kitchen workers at restaurants are continuously exposed to cooking fumes released during food processing. There is limited information about kitchen and barbecue grill workers’ occupational exposure. This work determined the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in the post-shift urines of barbecue grill workers during a regular working period. Levels of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were extracted by solid-phase extraction and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Overall, median concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were significantly higher during the period when workers were exposed than in the days out of duty (0.068 versus 0.050 µmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.003). Total exposure to 1-hydroxypyrene was well below the benchmark level of 0.5 µmol/mol creatinine proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The PAH biomarker of exposure to carcinogens, 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, was only detected during the working period (0.123–2.07 nmol/mol creatinine). Findings achieved in this study suggest that grill workers are occupationally exposed to PAHs and thus are more vulnerable to the potential health risks associated with long-term exposures. However, more studies are needed with other biomarkers of exposure to PAHs to better estimate the occupational exposure of barbecue grill workers.


Human biomonitoring Occupational exposure Urinary monohydroxyl metabolites 



This work was financially supported by European (FEDER funds through COMPETE) and National funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia project UID/QUI/50006/2019. M. Oliveira thanks to FCT/MCTES for the CEEC Individual 2017 Program Contract: CEECIND/03666/2017. Authors are thankful to all barbecue grill workers that participated in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Oliveira
    • 1
  • Sílvia Capelas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cristina Delerue-Matos
    • 1
  • Isabel Brás Pereira
    • 3
  • Simone Morais
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Ibero Massa FlorestalOliveira de AzeméisPortugal
  3. 3.CIETI-Instituto Superior de Engenharia do PortoPortoPortugal

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