Dietary Intakes of Polyphenols in Selected Vegetables and Fruits

  • Manel IssaouiEmail author
  • Amélia Martins Delgado
  • Candela Iommi
  • Nadia Chammem
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


Food supplies energy, nutrients, and different types of molecules and even micro-organisms that play key roles in human body. In addition, food also conveys pleasure and it is entangled with social behaviours and beliefs. Besides the macronutrients, the relevance of other compounds has been disclosed, notably about polyphenols. Besides the macronutrients, the relevance of other compounds has been disclosed, notably about polyphenols. This family of molecules has been regarded as unpleasant for their bitter taste, astringency or darkening of juices by food technologists. Polyphenols have also been regarded as antinutrients because of their ability to bind minerals and to denature proteins. However, recently many health-promoting properties have been attributed to polyphenols and a new niche market of food supplements is on the rise. On the other hand, the Med Diet contains a wide variety of ingredients rich in phytonutrients and it also encompasses cooking methods that optimize the interaction and protection of such phytonutrients. The present chapter focuses on polyphenol-rich foods of Med Diet and the interactions between them.


Antioxidant Extra virgin olive oil Food processing Mediterranean Diet Non-communicable diseases Phytonutrient Polyphenols 



Body weight




European Food Safety Authority


European Union


Extra virgin olive oil


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Food and Drug Administration


High-density lipoprotein


High-performance liquid chromatography


International Olive Council


Low-density lipoprotein

Med Diet

Mediterranean Dietary pattern


National Center for Biotechnology Information


Natural phenolic compound


Non-communicable diseases


Olive oil


United States of America


Virgin olive oil


World Health Organization


  1. Artajo LS, Romero MP, Suárez M, Motilva MJ (2007) Eur Food Res Technol 225:617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbieri G, Bergamaschi M, Saccani G, Caruso G, Santangelo A, Tulumello R, Vibhute B, Barbieri G (2019) Processed meat and polyphenols: opportunities, advantages, and difficulties. AOAC J 102(5):1401–1406. Scholar
  3. Beauchamp GK, Keast RS, Morel D, Lin J, Pika J, Han Q, Lee CH, Smith AB, Breslin PA (2005) Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 437(7055):45–46. Scholar
  4. Bezerra DP, Gadelha Militão GC, de Morais MC, de Sousa DP (2017) The dual antioxidant/prooxidant effect of eugenol and its action in cancer development and treatment. Nutrients 9(12):1367. Scholar
  5. Bhagat AR, Delgado AM, Issaoui M, Chammem N, Fiorino M, Pellerito A, Natalello S (2019) Review of the role of fluid dairy in delivery of polyphenolic compounds in the diet: chocolate milk, coffee beverages, Matcha green tea, and beyond. J AOAC Int 102(5):1365–1372. Scholar
  6. Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R, Andersen LF (2011) Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records. Nutr J 10(1):50. Scholar
  7. Castañer O, Fitó M, López-Sabater MC, Poulsen HE, Nyyssönen K, Schröder H, Salonen JT, De la Torre-Carbot K, Zunft HF, De la Torre R, Bäumler H, Gaddi AV, Saez GT, Tomás M, Covas MI (2011) EUROLIVE study group. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr 30(4):490–493. Scholar
  8. Cermak R, Landgraf S, Wolffram S (2004) Quercetin glucosides inhibit glucose uptake into brush-border-membrane vesicles of porcine jejunum. Brit J Nutr 91(6):849–855. Scholar
  9. Chang SC, Cassidy A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, O’Reilly EJ, Okereke OI (2016) Am J Clin Nutr 104(3):704–714. Scholar
  10. Cheng A, Chen X, Jin Q, Wang W, Shi Hi J, Liu Y (2013) Comparison of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of red and yellow onions. Czech J Food Sci 31:501–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi SH, Liu W, Misra P, Tanaka E, Zimmer JP, IttyIpe B, Bawendi MG, Frangioni JV (2007) Renal clearance of quantum dots. Nat Biotech 25(10):1165–1170. Scholar
  12. Choung MG, Choi BR, An YN, Chu YH, Cho YS (2003) Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 51(24):7040–7043. Scholar
  13. Cicerale S, Conlan XA, Sinclair AJ, Keast RS (2009) Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49(3):218–236. Scholar
  14. Cicerale S, Lucas L, Keast R (2010) Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil. Int J Mol Sci 11(2):458–479. Scholar
  15. Cordova AC, Sumpio BE (2009) Polyphenols are medicine: is it time to prescribe red wine for our patients? Int J Angiol 18(3):111–117PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cortés-Rojas DF, de Souza CRF, Oliveira WP (2014) Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. As Pac J Trop Biomed 4(2):90–96. Scholar
  17. Delgado AM, Parisi S, Almeida MDV (2017a) Greens and other vegetable foods. In: Delgado AM, Almeida MDV, Parisi S, Chemistry of the Mediterranean Diet. Springer International Publishing, Cham. Scholar
  18. Delgado AM, Parisi S, Almeida MDV (2017b) Infusions and wines. In: Delgado AM, Almeida MDV, Parisi S (eds) Chemistry of the Mediterranean Diet. Springer International Publishing, Cham. Scholar
  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2011) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polyphenols in olive and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage (ID 1333, 1638, 1639, 1696, 2865), maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 3781), ‘anti-inflammatory properties’ (ID 1882), ‘contributes to the upper respiratory tract health’ (ID 3468), ‘can help to maintain a normal function of gastrointestinal tract’ (3779), and ‘contributes to body defences against external agents’ (ID 3467) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 9(4):2033–2058. Scholar
  20. Enomoto T, Nagasako-Akazome Y, Kanda T, Ikeda M, Dake Y (2006) Clinical effects of apple polyphenols on persistent allergic rhinitis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel arm study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 16(5):283–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (2015) What are pulses? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. Available Accessed 12 Nov 2019
  22. Fattouch S, Caboni P, Coroneo V, Tuberoso C, Angioni A, Dessi S, Marzouki N, Cabras P (2008) J Agric Food Chem 56(3):1084–1090. Scholar
  23. Ghawi SK, Rowland I, Methven L (2014) Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings. Appet 81:20–29. Scholar
  24. Giusti F, Caprioli G, Ricciutelli M, Vittori S, Sagratini G (2017) Determination of fourteen polyphenols in pulses by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and correlation study with antioxidant activity and colour. Food Chem 15(221):689–697. Scholar
  25. Gosch C, Halbwirth H, Stich K (2010) Phloridzin: biosynthesis, distribution and physiological relevance in plants. Phytochem 71(8–9):838–843. Scholar
  26. Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, Lippi C, Casale R, Properzi G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C (2008) Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. J Nutr 138(9):1671–1676. Scholar
  27. Gülçin I, Elmastas M, Aboul-Enein HY (2012) Arab J Chem 5(4):489–499. Scholar
  28. Gutiérrez-Grijalva EP, Picos-Salas MA, Leyva-López N, Criollo-Mendoza MS, Vazquez-Olivo G, Heredia JB (2018) Plants 7(1):2. Scholar
  29. Hanganu D, Vlase L, Filip L, Sand C, Mirel S, Indrei LL (2008) The study of some polyphenolic compounds from Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae). Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 112(2):525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Heimler D, Isolani L, Vignolini P, Tombelli S, Romani A (2007) Polyphenol content and antioxidative activity in some species of freshly consumed salads. J Agric Food Chem 55(5):1724–1729. Scholar
  31. Herchi W, Arráez-Román D, Trabelsi H, Bouali I, Boukhchina S, Kallel H, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutierrez A (2014) An overview of the last decade. J Oleo Sci 63(1):7–14. Scholar
  32. Hollenberg NK, Fisher ND (2007) Is it the dark in dark chocolate? Circ 116(21):2360–2362. Scholar
  33. Hossain A, Khatun MA, Islam M, Huque R (2017) Enhancement of antioxidant quality of green leafy vegetables upon different cooking method. Prev Nutr Food Sci 22(3):216–222. Scholar
  34. Imran M, Ahmad N, Anjum FM, Khan MK, Mushtaq Z, Nadeem M, Hussain S (2015) Potential protective properties of flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. Nutr J 14:71. Scholar
  35. Javanmardi J, Khalighi A, Kashi A, Bais HP, Vivanco JM (2002) J Agri Food Chem 50(21):5878–5883. Scholar
  36. Jedrychowski W, Maugeri U, Popiela T, Kulig J, Sochacka-Tatara E, Pac A, Sowa A, Musial A (2010) Case–control study on beneficial effect of regular consumption of apples on colorectal cancer risk in a population with relatively low intake of fruits and vegetables. Eur J Cancer Prev 19(1):42–47. Scholar
  37. Lambert JD, Elias RJ (2010) The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: a role in cancer prevention. Arch Biochem Biophys 501(1):65–72. Scholar
  38. Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY (2003) Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J Agric Food Chem 51(25):7292–7295. Scholar
  39. Letenneur L, Proust-Lima C, Le Gouge A, Dartigues JF, Barberger-Gateau P (2007) Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol 165(12):1364–1371. Scholar
  40. Lorenzo JM, Munekata PES (2016) Phenolic compounds of green tea: health benefits and technological application in food. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6:709–719. Scholar
  41. Madhujith T, Naczk M, Shahidi F (2004) Antioxidant activity of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Food Lipids. 11(3):220–233. Scholar
  42. Manzano S, Williamson G (2010) Polyphenols and phenolic acids from strawberry and apple decrease glucose uptake and transport by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(12):1773–1780. Scholar
  43. Miyamae Y, Kurisu M, Han J, Isoda H, Shigemori H (2011) Structure–activity relationship of caffeoylquinic acids on the accelerating activity on ATP production. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 59(4):502–507. Scholar
  44. Mohankumar JB, Uthira L, Maheswari SU (2018) Total phenolic content of organic and conventional green leafy vegetables. J Nutr Hum Health 2(1):1–6. Scholar
  45. NCBI (2018) Pub chem compound database. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Bethesda. Available Accessed 11 Nov 2018
  46. Opara EI, Chohan M (2014) Int J Mol Sci 15(10):19183–19202. Scholar
  47. Parisi S (2019) Analysis of major phenolic compounds in foods and their health effects. J AOAC Int 102(5):1354–1355. Scholar
  48. Parisi S (2020) Characterization of major phenolic compounds in selected foods by the technological and health promotion viewpoints. J AOAC (in press)Google Scholar
  49. Peng C, Chan HY, Huang Y, Yu H, Chen ZY (2011) Apple polyphenols extend the mean lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. J Agric Food Chem 59(5):2097–2106. Scholar
  50. Pérez-Jiménez J, Neveu V, Vos F, Scalbert A (2010) Systematic analysis of the content of 502 polyphenols in 452 foods and beverages: an application of the phenol-explorer database. J Agric Food Chem 58(8):4959–4969. Scholar
  51. Ramírez-Anaya JP, Samaniego-Sánchez C, Castañeda-Saucedo MC, Villalón-Mir M, de la Serrana HL (2015) Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques. Food Chem 188(1):430–438. Scholar
  52. Rimbach G, Melchin M, Moehring J, Wagner A (2009) Polyphenols from cocoa and vascular health—a critical review. Int J Mol Sci 10(10):4290–4309. Scholar
  53. Rinaldi de Alvarenga JF, Quifer-Rada P, Francetto Juliano F, Hurtado-Barroso S, Illan M, Torrado-Prat X, Lamuela-Raventós RM (2019) Using extra virgin olive oil to cook vegetables enhances polyphenol and carotenoid extractability: a study applying the sofrito technique. Molecules. 24(8):pii: E1555. Scholar
  54. Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food Chem 53(20):7749–7759. Scholar
  55. Singh B, Singh JP, Shevkani K, Singh N, Kau A (2017) J Food Sci Technol 54(4):858–870858. Scholar
  56. Srivastava JK, Pandey M, Gupta S (2009) Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci 85(19–20):663–669. Scholar
  57. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Patch CS, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG (2006) Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med J Aust 185(4):S1–S24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Tokura T, Nakano N, Ito T, Matsuda H, Nagasako-Akazome Y, Kanda T, Ikeda M, Okumura K, Ogawa H, Nishiyama C (2005) Inhibitory effect of polyphenol-enriched apple extracts on mast cell degranulation in vitro targeting the binding between IgE and FcεRI. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69(10):1974–1977. Scholar
  59. Tuck KL, Hayball PJ (2002) Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. J Nutr Biochem 13:636–644. Scholar
  60. van Duynhoven J, Vaughan EE, van Dorsten F, Gomez-Roldan V, de Vos R, Vervoort J, van der Hooft JJJ, Roger L, Draijer R, Jacobs DM (2013) Interactions of black tea polyphenols with human gut microbiota: implications for gut and cardiovascular health. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1631S–1641SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vinson JA, Proch J, Zubik L (1999) Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: cocoa, dark chocolate, and milk chocolate. J Agric Food Chem 47(12):4821–4824. Scholar
  62. Visioli F, Bernaert H, Corti R, Ferri C, Heptinstall S, Molinari E, Poli A, Serafini M, Smit HJ, Vinson JA, Violi F, Paoletti R (2009) Chocolate, lifestyle, and health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49(4):299–312. Scholar
  63. Wong SY, Grant IR, Friedman M, Elliott CT, Situ C (2008) Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(19):5986–5990. Scholar
  64. Zhang B, Deng Z, Ramdath DD, Tang Y, Chen PX, Liu R, Tsao R (2015) Phenolic profiles of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and their contribution to antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Food Chem 172:862–872. Scholar
  65. Zugravu C, Otelea MR (2019) Dark chocolate: to eat or not to eat? a review. J AOAC Int 102(5):1388–1396. Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manel Issaoui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amélia Martins Delgado
    • 2
  • Candela Iommi
    • 3
  • Nadia Chammem
    • 4
  1. 1.Functional Food & Vascular Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MonastirMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.MED-Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and DevelopmentUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  3. 3.Food Safety and Public Health ConsultantMilanItaly
  4. 4.LETMi, INSATUniversity of CarthageTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations