Advertisement

Polyphenols as Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Supplements

  • Manel IssaouiEmail author
  • Amélia Martins Delgado
  • Candela Iommi
  • Nadia Chammem
Chapter
  • 40 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)

Abstract

Foods are the vehicle and the support of a wide variety of macronutrients, micronutrients and minor compounds that are responsible for the nutritional and sensorial properties. Mediterranean Diet is abundant in plant-based (nutrient-dense, seasonal and low-energy) foods, and despite including industrial products, it does not have place to ultraprocessed foods, which are energetically dense and low in nutrients; the first type of foods (including fresh produce as well as foodstuffs) is grounded on agro-biodiversity and respectful of the environment, while the second class of foods (sodas, fast-food) is responsible for the rise in obesity and other non-communicable diseases. Products of the second food category generally have a high carbon footprint, contribute to deforestation, to the reduction of biodiversity, and generally do not bring any social benefit. This chapter emphasizes the important involvement of polyphenols of natural origin specifically in connection with organoleptic features, on the one side; on the other side, the use of polyphenols as food supplements and additives is also detailed. Polyphenols can configure the sensorial proprieties of foods by their colours, their taste (e.g. astringency and bitterness) in addition to various nutritional functions and health benefits, which make them popular bioactive compounds. It is important to raise awareness on the need of official regulations of health claims (particularly in food supplements) and standardization of recommended daily intakes for these phytonutrients. It is also important to claim that phenols are just one piece of the whole puzzle of dietary components that must be present in our dishes.

Keywords

Astringency Bitterness Extra virgin olive oil Polyphenol Flavour Mediterranean Diet Pungency 

Abbreviations

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EU

European Union

EVOO

Extra virgin olive oil

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

IOC

International Olive Council

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

Med Diet

Mediterranean Diet

MW

Molecular weight

NDC

Non-communicable disease

OO

Olive oil

SDG

Sustainable Development Goal

USA

United States of America

References

  1. Abdel-Aal ESM, Young JC, Rabalski I (2006) Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. J Agric Food Chem 54(13):4696–4704.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0606609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida MDV, Parisi S, Delgado AM (2017) Food and nutrient features of the Mediterranean Diet. In: Delgado AM, Almeida MDV, Parisi S (eds) Chemistry of the Mediterranean Diet. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29370-7_2Google Scholar
  3. Andrewes P, Busch JLHC, de Joode T, Groenewegen A, Alexandre H (2003) Sensory properties of virgin olive oil polyphenols: identification of deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon as a key contributor to pungency. J Agric Food Chem 51(5):1415–1420.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026042jCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aranceta Bartrina J, ArijaVal V, MaízAldalur E, de la Victoria Martínez, Muñoz E, Ortega Anta RM, Pérez Rodrigo C, Quiles Izquierdo J, Rodríguez Martín A, Román Viñas B, Salvador Castell G, Tur Marí JA, Varela Moreiras G, Serra Majem L (2016) Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population (SENC, diciembre 2016); the new graphic icon of healthy food. Nutr Hosp 33(Suppl 8):1–48.  https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.827CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbaro B, Toietta G, Maggio R, Arciello M, Tarrocchi M, Galli A, Balsano C (2014) Effects of the olive-derived polyphenol oleuropein on human health. Int J Mol Sci 15(10):18508–18524.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151018508CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bach-Faig A, Berry EM, Lairon D, Reguant J, Trichopoulou A, Dernini S, Medina FX, Battino M, Belahsen R, Miranda G, Serra-Majem L (2011) Mediterranean Diet Foundation Expert Group. Mediterranean diet pyramid today. Science and cultural updates. Public Health Nutr. 14:2274-2284.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011002515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Batchu SN, Chaudhary KR, Wiebe GJ, Seubert JM (2013) Bioactive compounds in heart disease. In: Bioactive food as dietary interventions for cardiovascular diseaseGoogle Scholar
  8. Beltran G, Ruano MT, Jimenez A, Uceda M, Aguilera MP (2007) Evaluation of virgin olive oil bitterness by total phenol content analysis. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 109(3):193–197.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200600231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casas R, Estruch R, Sacanell E (2018) The protective effects of extra virgin olive oil on immune-mediated inflammatory responses. Endocr Metabol Immun Disord Drug Targ 18(1):23–35.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1871530317666171114115632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castañer O, Fitó M, López-Sabater MC, Poulsen HE, Nyyssönen K, Schröder H, Salonen JT, De la Torre-Carbot K, Zunft HF, De la Torre R, Bäumler H, Gaddi AV, Saez GT, Tomás M, Covas MI (2011) EUROLIVE study group. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr 30(4):490–493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2011.01.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheynier V, Fulcrand H, Brossaud F, Asselin C, Moutounet M (1998) Phenolic composition as related to red wine flavor. In: Waterhouse AL, Ebeler SE (eds) Chemistry of wine flavor. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 124–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chung HS, Woo WS (2001) A quinolone alkaloid with antioxidant activity from the aleurone layer of anthocyanin-pigmented rice. J Nat Prod 64(12):1579–1580.  https://doi.org/10.1021/np010324gCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Deng GF, Xu XR, Zhang Y, Li D, Gan RY, Li HB (2013) Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53(3):296–306.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.529624CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Drewnowski A, Gomez-Carneros C (2000) Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 72(6):1424–1435.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.6.1424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2011) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polyphenols in olive and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage (ID 1333, 1638, 1639, 1696, 2865), maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 3781), ‘anti-inflammatory properties’ (ID 1882), ‘contributes to the upper respiratory tract health’ (ID 3468), ‘can help to maintain a normal function of gastrointestinal tract’ (3779), and ‘contributes to body defences against external agents’ (ID 3467) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 9(4):2033–2058.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harzallah H (1993) Extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaves, olive fruit and olive oil and determination of their antioxidant activity. Dissertation. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh), CreteGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu C, Zawistowski J, Ling W, Kitts DD (2003) Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems. J Agric Food Chem 51(18):5271–5277.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034466nCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. IOC (2004) Trade standard applying to table olives, Res-2/91-IV/04. International Olive Council (IOC), Madrid. Available http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/documents/viewfile/3626-normoteng. Accessed 08 Nov 2019
  19. IOC (2011) Method sensory analysis of table olives. COI/OT/MO No 1/Rev. 2. International Olive Council (IOC), Madrid. Available http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/documents/viewfile/4130-met-ot-org-eng. Accessed 08 Nov 2019
  20. IOC (2018) Sensory analysis of olive oil—method for the organoleptical assessment of virgin olive oil. COI/T.20/Doc. No 15/Rev. 10. International Olive Council (IOC), Madrid. Available http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/estaticos/view/224-testing-methods. Accessed 08 Nov 2019
  21. Johnson HE, Amarillas C, Bzhelyansky A, Jennens M, Krepich S, Kuszak A, Monagas M, Parisi S, Reif K, Rimmer CA, Stewart J, Szpylka J, Tims MC, Van Breemen R, Zhao H, Coates SG (2018) Standard method performance requirements (SMPRs®) 2018.006: determination of select flavonoids from skullcap. J AOAC Int 101(4):1261–1265.  https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.smpr2018.006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Keys A (1980) Seven countries. A Multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Harvard University Press, Harvard.  https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674497887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keys A. (1995) Mediterranean diet and public health: personal reflections. Am J Clin Nutr. 61:1321S–1323S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1321SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Djordjevic BS, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Keys MH, et al. (1986) The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol. 124:903–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kiritsakis AK (1998) Flavor components of olive oil—a review. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75(6):673–681.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0205-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhlmann J, Anderson W, Bandong G, Bratinova S, Burger D, Cook JM, Cruijsen H, De Dominicis E, de Vreeze M, Ehling S, Empl AM, Evers J, Gude T, Hanlon P, Jaudzems G, Koesukwiwat U, Lesueur C, MacMahon S, Manti V, Mastovska K, Mikkelsen A, Myers R, Paolillo P, Parisi S, Pinkston JD, Rankin R, Reuther J, Romano J, Schulz C, Stanley G, Stephenson C, Sullivan D, Szpylka J, Tennyson S, van Leeuwen S, Yadlapalli S, Yeung J, Nestle (2018) Standard method performance requirements (SMPRs®) 2017.017: determination of 2- and 3-MCPD, 2- and 3-MCPD esters, and glycidyl esters in infant and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. J AOAC Int 101(1):324–326.  https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.smpr2017.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Laganà P, Avventuroso E, Romano G, Gioffré ME, Patanè P, Parisi S, Delia S (2017a) Classification and technological purposes of food additives: the European point of view. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food additives. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  28. Laganà P, Avventuroso E, Romano G, Gioffré ME, Patanè P, Parisi S, Delia S (2017b) The codex alimentarius and the European legislation on food additives. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food additives. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  29. Laganà P, Avventuroso E, Romano G, Gioffré ME, Patanè P, Parisi S, Delia S (2017c) Food additives and effects on the microbial ecology in Yoghurts. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food additives. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  30. Laganà P, Avventuroso E, Romano G, Gioffré ME, Patanè P, Parisi S, Delia S (2017d) Use and overuse of food additives in edible products: health consequences for consumers. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food additives. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  31. Laganà P, Campanella G, Patanè P, Assunta Cava M, Parisi S, Gambuzza ME, Delia S, Coniglio MA (2019a) Food gases: classification and allowed uses. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food gases. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  32. Laganà P, Campanella G, Patanè P, Assunta Cava M, Parisi S, Gambuzza ME, Delia S, Coniglio MA (2019b) Food gases in the European union. The legislation. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food gases. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  33. Laganà P, Campanella G, Patanè P, Assunta Cava M, Parisi S, Gambuzza ME, Delia S, Coniglio MA (2019c) Food gases in the industry. Chemical and physical features. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food gases. Springer International Publishing, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Laganà P, Campanella G, Patanè P, Assunta Cava M, Parisi S, Gambuzza ME, Delia S, Coniglio MA (2019d) Safety evaluation and assessment of gases for food applications. In: Chemistry and hygiene of food gases. Springer International Publishing, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Montedoro G, Bertuccioli M, Anichini F (1978) Aroma analysis of virgin olive oil by head space volatiles extraction techniques. In: Charalampous G, Inglet GI (eds) Flavor of foods and beverages. Academic Press, New York, pp 247–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakornriab M, Sriseadka T, Wongpornchai S (2008) Quantification of carotenoid and flavonoid components in brans of some Thai black rice cultivars using supercritical fluid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Food lipid 15(4):488–503.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2008.00135.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oey SB, van der Fels-Klerx HJ, Fogliano V, van Leeuwen SP (2019) Mitigation strategies for the reduction of 2-and 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in the vegetable oil processing industry. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 18(2):349–361.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Omar SH (2010) Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects. Sci Pharm 78(2):133–154.  https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-18CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Ozdemir Y, Guven E, Ozturk A (2014) Understanding the characteristics of oleuropein for table olive processing. J Food Process Technol 5(5):1000328.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parisi S (2016) Min Hu and Charlotte Jacobsen (eds): Oxidative stability and shelf life of foods containing oils and fats. Anal Bioanal Chem. 408(27):7549–7550.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9875-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parisi S (2018) Analytical approaches and safety evaluation strategies for antibiotics and antimicrobial agents in food products. Chem Biol Solutions J AOAC Int 101(4):914–915.  https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.17-0444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parisi S (2019) Analysis of major phenolic compounds in foods and their health effects. J AOAC Int 102(5):1354–1355.  https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.19-0127CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Parisi S (2020) Characterization of major phenolic compounds in selected foods by the technological and health promotion viewpoints. J AOAC (in press)Google Scholar
  44. Parisi S, Luo W (2018a) Chemistry of Maillard reactions in processed foods. In: The importance of Maillard reaction in processed foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  45. Parisi S, Luo W (2018b) Maillard reaction in processed foods—reaction mechanisms. In: The importance of Maillard reaction in processed foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  46. Parisi S, Luo W (2018c) Maillard reaction and processed foods—main chemical products. In: The importance of Maillard reaction in processed foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  47. Rigacci S, Stefani M (2016) Nutraceutical properties of olive oil polyphenols. An itinerary from cultured cells through animal models to humans. Int J Mol Sci 17(6):843.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060843CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruini LF, Ciati R, Pratesi CA, Marino M, Principato L, Vannuzzi E (2015) Working toward healthy and sustainable diets: the “double pyramid model” developed by the Barilla center for food and nutrition to raise awareness about the environmental and nutritional impact of foods. Front Nutr 4(2):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2015.00009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shoji T (2007) Polyphenols as natural food pigments: changes during food processing. Am J Food Technol 2(7):570–581.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2007.570.581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018a) Analytical methods for the determination of Maillard reaction products in foods. An introduction. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018b) The control of Maillard reaction in processed foods. Analytical testing methods for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018c) Analytical methods for the determination of furosine in food products. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018d) The analytical evaluation of acrylamide in foods as a Maillard reaction product. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018e) Melanoidins and browning reactions in processed foods. Quantitative determinations, colour measurement, and sensorial assessment. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Soler-Rivas C, Espin JC, Wichers HJ (2000) Oleuropein and related compounds. A review. J Sci Food Agric 80(7):1013–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7%3c1013:AID-JSFA571%3e3.0.CO;2-CCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (2017a) Antibiotic-resistant staphylococci isolated from hermetically packaged frozen vegetables. In: The chemistry of frozen vegetables. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  57. Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (2017b) Technology and chemical features of frozen vegetables. In: The chemistry of frozen vegetables. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  58. Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (2017c) Instrumental systems for the control of frozen vegetables during refrigeration. In: The chemistry of frozen vegetables. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  59. Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (2017d) Colorimetric modifications in frozen vegetables. In: The chemistry of frozen vegetables. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  60. Vichapong J, Sookserm M, Srijesdaruk V, Swatsitang P, Srijaranai S (2010) High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities in rice varieties. LWT Food Sci Technol 43:1325–1330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.05.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yawadio R, Tanimori S, Morita N (2007) Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chem 101(4):1616–1625.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhou ZK, Robards K, Helliwell S, Blanchard C (2004) The distribution of phenolic acids in rice. Food Chem 87(3):401–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.12.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manel Issaoui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amélia Martins Delgado
    • 2
  • Candela Iommi
    • 3
  • Nadia Chammem
    • 4
  1. 1.Functional Food & Vascular Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MonastirMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.MED-Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and DevelopmentUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  3. 3.Food Safety and Public Health ConsultantMilanItaly
  4. 4.LETMi, INSATUniversity of CarthageTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations