A Cluster-Based Small Cell On/Off Scheme for Energy Efficiency Optimization in Ultra-Dense Networks

  • Cui-Qin DaiEmail author
  • Biao Fu
  • Qianbin Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 312)


Ultra-Dense Networks (UDN) can greatly meet the demand for explosively growing data traffic via deploying small cells (SCs) densely. However, the SCs densification causes higher energy consumption and more severe inter-cell interference (ICI). The SC on/off control is one of the effective ways to solve above problems, but the challenge is to maintain network coverage while avoiding degradation of the quality of service (QoS) of user equipment (UEs). In this paper, we formulate energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in stochastic geometry-based network and take into consideration the QoS of UEs and ICI to maximize the EE. The solution is obtained by dividing the problem into SCs clustering and intra-cluster SC on/off control. We first use an improved K-means clustering algorithm to divide the dense SCs into disjoint clusters according to the distance and density of SCs. Then, within each cluster, selecting a SC as the cluster head (CH) is responsible for performing SC on/off operations under taking minimum rate of UEs and ICI as constraints. In addition, a heuristic search algorithm (HSA) is proposed for the intra-cluster SC on/off control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the network energy efficiency and suppress interference.


UDN Small cell on/off Clustering Energy efficiency 



This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation in China (61601075), the Natural Science Foundation Project of CQUPT (A2019-40).


  1. 1.
    Teng, Y., Liu, M., Yu, F.R., Leung, V.C.M., Song, M., Zhang, Y.: Resource allocation for ultra-dense networks: a survey, some research issues and challenges. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 21(3), 2134–2168 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu, Y., Qian, L.P., Zheng, J., Zhou, H., Shen, X.S.: Green-oriented traffic offloading through dual connectivity in future heterogeneous small cell networks. IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(5), 140–147 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kamel, M., Hamouda, W., Youssef, A.: Ultra-dense networks: a survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 18(4), 2522–2545 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mollahasani, S., Onur, E.: Density-aware, energy-and spectrum-efficient small cell scheduling. IEEE Access 7, 65852–65869 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cao, J., Peng, T., Qi, Z., Duan, R., Yuan, Y., Wang, W.: Interference management in ultradense networks: a user-centric coalition formation game approach. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 67(6), 5188–5202 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhuang, H., Chen, J., Wu, D.O.: Joint access and backhaul resource management for ultra-dense networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, pp. 1–6 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Son, K., Kim, H., Yi, Y., Krishnamachari, B.: Base station operation and user association mechanisms for energy-delay tradeoffs in green cellular networks. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 29(8), 1525–1536 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang, B., Mao, G., Ding, M., Ge, X., Tao, X.: Dense small cell networks: from noise-limited to dense interference-limited. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 67(5), 4262–4277 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feng, M., Mao, S., Jiang, T.: Base station ON-OFF switching in 5G wireless networks: approaches and challenges. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 24(4), 46–54 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, J., Lee, H., Chong, S.: Traffic-aware energy-saving base station sleeping and clustering in cooperative networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 17(2), 1173–1186 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pei, L., Huilin, J., Zhiwen, P., Xiaohu, Y.: Energy-delay tradeoff in ultra-dense networks considering bs sleeping and cell association. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 67(1), 734–751 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, C., Natarajan, B., Xia, H.: Small cell base station sleep strategies for energy efficiency. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(3), 1652–1661 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tao, R., Zhang, J., Chu, X.: An energy saving small cell sleeping mechanism with cell expansion in heterogeneous networks. In: 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Nanjing, pp. 1–5 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang, Q., Zheng, J.: A distributed base station On/Off Control Mechanism for energy efficiency of small cell networks. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, pp. 3317–3322 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Samarakoon, S., Bennis, M., Saad, W., Latva-aho, M.: Dynamic clustering and on/off strategies for wireless small cell networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 15(3), 2164–2178 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ye, Y., Zhang, H., Xiong, X., Liu, Y.: Dynamic min-cut clustering for energy savings in ultra-dense networks. In: 2015 IEEE 82nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2015-Fall), Boston, MA, pp. 1–5 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oh, E., Son, K., Krishnamachari, B.: Dynamic base station switching-on/off strategies for green cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 12(5), 2126–2136 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu, N., Miao, Y., Mu, L., Du, H., Huang, H., Jia, X.: Minimizing energy cost by dynamic switching ON/OFF base stations in cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 15(11), 7457–7469 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gan, X., et al.: Energy efficient switch policy for small cells. Commun. China 12(1), 78–88 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peng, J., Hong, P., Xue, K.: Stochastic analysis of optimal base station energy saving in cellular networks with sleep mode. IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(4), 612–615 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andrews, J.G., Baccelli, F., Ganti, R.K.: A tractable approach to coverage and rate in cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Commun. 59(11), 3122–3134 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peng, C., Wang, L., Liu, C.: Optimal base station deployment for small cell networks with energy-efficient power control. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, pp. 1863–1868 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tung, L., Wang, L., Chen, K.: An interference-aware small cell on/off mechanism in hyper dense small cell networks. In: 2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), Santa Clara, CA, pp. 767–771 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Communication and Information EngineeringChongqing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsChongqingChina
  2. 2.Chongqing Key Lab of Mobile Communication TechnologyChongqing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations