Green Planning of Cities and Communities: Theories, Strategies and Tools of a Complex Framework

  • Giuliano Dall’O’Email author
Part of the Research for Development book series (REDE)


If urban planning plays a fundamental role in the future of humanity, which is concentrating an increasing share of the population in cities, then green planning is the most effective response to the climate change emergency. This chapter analyses theories, strategies and tools that characterize the green planning of cities and communities useful for understanding and managing its complexity. The first section analyses the continuously evolving relationship between urban planning and sustainable development. The topic of sustainable development in green planning is seen as a comparison between two approaches, one more utopian and idealistic and one more pragmatic, both in the two fundamental declinations: the more anthropocentric and the more ecological. Subsequently, the more applicative aspects are dealt with: from the analysis of the sectoral planning tools, relations and synergies are highlighted with the aim of providing an integrated, inclusive model. The final part of the chapter proposes a planning strategy aimed at supporting a structured, integrated and effective green planning model for cities and communities.


  1. Alexander C, Ishikawa S, Silverstein M, Jacobson M, Fiksdahl-King I, Shlomo A (1977) A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Beatley T (2000) Green urbanism: learning from European cities. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee T (2014) Urban design and sustainability: looking back-wards to move forward. In: Mazmanian DA, Blanco H (eds) Elgar companion to sustainable cities: strategies, methods and outlook. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp 381–396Google Scholar
  4. Brundtland GH (2004) Sustainable development—a global perspective on ecology, economy & equity. In: 4th annual Peter M. Wege lecture. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell D S (1996) Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. J Am Plann Assoc 62(3):296–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell SD (2016) The planner’s triangle revisited: sustainability and the evolution of a planning ideal that can’t stand still. J Am Plann Assoc 82(4):388–397DMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dall’O’ G, Galante A, Sanna N, Miller K (2013a) On the integration of leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED)® ND protocol with the energy planning and management tools in Italy: strengths and weaknesses. Energies. MDPIGoogle Scholar
  8. Dall’O’ G, Norese MF, Galante A, Novello C, (2013b). A multi-criteria methodology to support public administration decision making concerning sustainable energy action plans. Energies. MDPIGoogle Scholar
  9. Dall’O’ G, Sarto L, Panza A, Bruni E, Khayatian F (2017) Evaluation of cities’ smartness by means of indicators for small and medium cities and communities: a methodology for Northern Italy. Sustain Cities Soc. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  10. Duany A, Plater-Zyberk E, Speck J (2000) Suburban nation: the rise of sprawl and the decline of the American dream. North Point Press, New York. ISBN 0-86547-606-3Google Scholar
  11. European Commission (2018) Indicators for sustainable cities. Available on: Accessed 20 Aug 2019
  12. Global Green Growth Institute (2019) Green city strategic planning methodology: a guide for the development of a strategic green city strategic plan. Available on Accessed 20 Aug 2019
  13. Hester RT (2009) Design for ecological democracy. Landsc J 28(2):235–236. Scholar
  14. Jabareen Yosef R (2006) Sustainable urban forms: their typologies, models and concepts. J Plann Educ Res 26(1):38–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacobs A, Appleyard D (1987) Toward an urban design manifesto, planner’s notebook. J Am Plann Assoc. Available on: Accessed 20 Aug 2019
  16. Knowles RL (1978) Energy and form: an ecological approach to urban growth. The MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  17. Lynch K (1981) A theory of good cities form. The MIT Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. McHarg Ian L (1969) Design with nature. (Wiley Series in Sustainable Design Book 6). English edition, 25th ednGoogle Scholar
  19. Mancuso S (2017) Plant revolution, le piante hanno già inventato il nostro futuro. Giunti Editore, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  20. Mondini G (2018) An integrated approach for assessing environmental damage and (inter) generational Debt in the definition of territorial transformation policies, in integrated evaluation for the management of contemporary cities. Green Energy and Technology, Springer NatureGoogle Scholar
  21. Pankaja MS, Nagendra HN (2015) Green city concept—as new paradigm in urban planning. Int J Eng Sci (IJES) 4(10):55–60Google Scholar
  22. Soleri P (1969) Arcology: the city in the image of man. Available on Accessed 20 Aug 22 2019
  23. Steiner FR (2000) The living landscape: an ecological approach to landscape planning, 2nd edn. McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  24. Talen E (2005) New urbanism and American planning: the conflict of cultures. Taylor & Francis LtdGoogle Scholar
  25. Whinston AW (2011) Ecological urbanism: a framework for design of resilient cities. In: Steward TA, Pickett Mary L. Cadenasso, Brian P. McGrath (eds) Draft of a chapter for resilience in ecology and urban design. Springer, Berlin. Available on Accessed 20 Aug 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, ABC DepartmentPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations