# A Deep Learning Attack Countermeasure with Intentional Noise for a PUF-Based Authentication Scheme

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## Abstract

We propose a scheme to prevent the machine learning (ML) attacks against physically unclonable functions (PUFs). A silicon PUF is a security primitive in a semiconductor chip that generates a unique identifier by exploiting device variations. However, some PUF implementations are vulnerable to ML attacks, in which an attacker tries to obtain the mathematical clone of the target PUF to predict its responses. Our scheme adds intentional noise to the responses to disturb ML by an attacker so that the clone fails to be authenticated, while the original PUF can still be correctly authenticated using an error correction code (ECC). The effectiveness of this scheme is not very obvious because the attacker can also use the ECC. We apply the countermeasure to *n*-XOR arbiter PUFs to investigate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. We explain the relationship between the prediction accuracy of the clone and the number of intentional noise bits. Our scheme can successfully distinguish a clone from the legitimate PUF in the case of 5-XOR PUF.

## Keywords

Physical unclonable function Machine learning attack Authentication Noise Fuzzy extractor## Notes

### Acknowledgment

This paper is based on the results obtained from the project commissioned by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

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