Introduction to this Path
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By the time of the start of the 20th century physics had settled down to what we nowadays call classical physics, based on Newton’s theories of motion and gravitation as well as on the Maxwell equations concerning electricity and magnetism. At this point the reader need not be concerned with what these theories were. Rather what they were not is important. And they were not adequate for explaining lots of properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Most dramatically, the data coming from the new science of spectroscopy, which we will describe later, seemed inconsistent with classical physics. And so it was!