Timing of South Delhi Orogeny: Interpretation from Structural Fabric and Granite Geochronology, Beawar-Rupnagar-Babra Area, Rajasthan, NW India

  • Subhash Singh
  • Anjali Shukla
  • B. H. Umasankar
  • Tapas Kumar Biswal
Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)


The South Delhi orogeny is constrained by a correlative study between the deformational fabric and geochronology of the metarhyolite and granite of the South Delhi terrane (SDT) around Beawar- Rupnagar-Babra, Rajasthan, NW India. The SDT contains metaconglomerate (Bar conglomerate), calcareous schist, mica schist, amphibolite, metarhyolite (G1) and three phases of granites (G2-4), which underwent three stages of deformations (D1-3). The D1 produced F1 reclined/recumbent folds and S1 fabric in a greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. The D2 produced F2 folds which were coaxial with F1 along NE-SW axis, S2 crenulations and ductile shear zones. The D3 produced NW-SE trending F3 folds. The S1 fabric in the metarhyolite (G1) and, G2 and G3 granites differs from that of the G4 granite. It shows low temperature of formation in the former (G1-3), characterized by recrystallization of quartz by bulging and development of biotite, muscovite, epidote. In the later (G4), it is characterized by high temperature of formation as indicated by dynamic recrystallization of the plagioclase by subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration. Based on these differences, we interpreted that the intrusion of the G4 is syntectonic with the D1 deformation while the metaryolite (G1), G2 and G3 granites were pretectonic to the D1. The G4 (Sewariya granite) was dated previously at 860 Ma that constrains the age D1 deformation and South Delhi orogeny. The G1, G2 and G3 (Sendra granite equivalent) were earlier dated at ca. 970 Ma which probably indicates age of rifting.


Deformation fabric Metarhyolite Granite South Delhi terrane 860 Ma South Delhi orogeny 



We thank Department of Earth Sciences, IIT Bombay for financial support during field work. Review by anonymous reviewers greatly improved the MS.


  1. Ashwal LD, Solanki AM, Pandit MK, Corfu F, Hendriks BW, Burke K, Torswik TH (2013) Geochronology and geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic Mt, Abu granitoids, NW India: regional correlation and implications for Rodinia paleogeography. Precambr Res 236:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhardwaj A, Biswal TK (2019) Deformation and tectonic history of Punagarh Basin in the Trans-Aravalli Terrane of North-Western India. In: Geological evolution of the Precambrian Indian shield. Springer, pp 159–178Google Scholar
  3. Bhowmik SK, Bernhardt HJ, Dasgupta S (2010) Grenvillian age high-pressure upper amphibolite–granulite metamorphism in the Aravalli-Delhi mobile belt, northwestern India: New evidence from monazite chemical age and its implication. Precambr Res 178:168–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhowmik SK, Dasgupta S (2012) Tectonothermal evolution of the Banded Gneissic Complex in central Rajasthan, NW India: present status and correlation. J Asian Earth Sci 49:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhowmik SK, Dasgupta S, Baruah S, Kalita D (2018) Thermal history of a Late Mesoproterozoic paired metamorphic belt during Rodinia assembly: new insight from medium-pressure granulites from the Aravalli-Delhi Mobile Belt, Northwestern India. Geosci Front 9(2):335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biswal TK (1988) Polyphase deformation in Delhi rocks, south-east Amir-garh, Banaskantha district, Gujarat, in Precambrian of the Aravalli Mountain, Rajasthan, India. Memoir Geol Soc India 7:267–277Google Scholar
  7. Biswal TK, Gyani KC, Parthasarathy R, Pant DR (1998a) Implications of the geochemistry of the Pelitic Granulites of the Delhi Supergroup, Aravalli Mountain Belt, Northwestern India. Precambr Res 87:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biswal TK, Gyani KC, Parthasarathy R, Pant DR (1998b) Tectonic implication of geochemistry of gabbro-norite-basic granulite suite in the Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup, Rajasthan, India. J Geol Soc India 52:721–732Google Scholar
  9. Biswal TK, De Waele B, Ahuja H (2007) Timing and dynamics of the juxtapositionof the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt against the Bhandara Craton, India: a structural and zircon U–Pb SHRIMP study of the fold–thrust belt and associated nepheline syenite. Tectonics 26:TC4006. Scholar
  10. Bose S, Seth P, Dasgupta N (2017) Meso-Neoproterozoic mid-crustal metamorphic record from the Ajmer-Srinagar section, Rajasthan, India and its implication to the assembly of the greater Indian Landmass during the Grenvillian-age orogenesis. In: Pant NC, Dasgupta S (eds) Crusstal evolution of India and Antarctica, The supercontinent Connection, vol 457, Geological Society London, pp 291–318Google Scholar
  11. Bouchez JL, Gleizes G, Djouadi T, Rochette P (1990) Microstructure and magnetic susceptibility applied to emplacement kinematics of granites: the example of the Foix pluton (French Pyrenees). Tectonophysics 184(2):157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cawood A (2005) Terra Australis Orogen. Rodinia breakup and development of the Pacific and Iapetus margins of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. Earth Sci Rev 69:249–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatterjee SM, Roy Choudhury M, Das S, Roy A (2017) Significance and dynamics of the Neoproterozoic (810 Ma) Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, NW India. Tectonics 36(8):1432–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cherniak DJ, Watson EB (2001) Pb diffusion in zircon. Chem Geol 172:5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins AS, Windley BF (2002) The tectonic evolution of central and northern Madagascar and its place in the final assembly of Gondwana. J Geol 110(3):325–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins AS, Pisarevsky SA (2005) Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: the evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth Sci Rev 71:229–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawford AR (1975) Rb-Sr age determination for the Mount Abu Granite and related rocks of Gujarat. J Geol Soc India 16:20–28Google Scholar
  18. Dahl PS (1997) A crystal-chemical basis for Pb retention and fission track annealing systematics in U-bearing minerals with implications for geochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 150:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dasgupta N, Mukhopadhyay D, Bhattacharyya T (2012) Analysis of superposed strain: a case study from Barr Conglomerate in the South Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India. J Struct Geol 34:30–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Wall H, Pandit MK, Chauhan NK (2012) Paleosol at the Archean–Proterozoic contact in Udaipur. Precambr Res 216:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Wall H, Pandit MK, Sharma KK, Schobel S, Just J (2014) Deformation, granite intrusion in the Sirohi area, SW Rajasthan—constraints on cryogenian to Pan African crustal dynamics of NW India. Precambr Res 254:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deb M, Thorpe RI, Cumming GL, Wagner A (1989) Age, source and stratigraphic implication of Pb isotope data for conformable, sediment-hosted, base metal deposits in the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi Orogenic Belt, Northwestern India. Precambr Res 43:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deb M, Thorpe RI, Krstic D, Corfu F, Davis DW (2001) Zircon U-Pb and galena Pb isotope evidence an approximate 1.0 Ga terrane constituting the western margin of the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, northwestern India. Precambr Res 108:195–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deb M, Thorpe RI (2001) Geochronological constraints in the Precambrian Geology of Northwestern India and their Metallogenic Implication. In: Deb M, Goodfellow WD (eds) Sediment-hosted Lead-Zinc sulfide deposit in the Northwestern Indian Shield. Proceedings of an international workshop, Delhi-Udaipur, India, pp 137–152Google Scholar
  25. Dharma Rao CV, Santosh M, Kim SW, Li S (2013) Arc magmatism in the Delhi Fold Belt. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of granitoids and implications for Neoproterozoic convergent margin tectonics in NW India. J Asian Earth Sci 78:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fareeduddin SM, Basavalingu B, Janardhan A (1994) PT conditions of pelitic granulites and associated charnockites of Chinwali area, west of Delhi fold belt. Rajasthan. J Geol Soc India 43(2):169–178Google Scholar
  27. Foster G, Parrish RR, Horstwood MSA, Cheney S, Pyle J, Gibson HD (2004) The generation of prograde P-T-t points and paths; a textural, compositional, and chronological study of metamorphic monazite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 228:125–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fritz H, Abdelsalam M, Ali KA, Bingen B, Collins AS, Fowler AR, Ghebreab W, Hauzenberger CA, Johnson R, Kusky TM, Macey P (2013) Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: a review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution. J Afr Earth Sci 86:65–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gangopadhyay A, Mukhopadhyay D (1984) Structural geometry of the Delhi supergroup near Sendra. In: Saha AK (ed) Geological evolution of peninsular India, Recent Researches in Geology, pp 45–60Google Scholar
  30. Ghosh SK, Hazra S, Sengupta S (1999) Planar, non-planar and refolded sheath folds in the Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, India. J Struct Geol 21(12):1715–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghosh SK, Sen G, Sengupta S (2003) Rotation of long tectonic clasts in transpressional shear zones. J Struct Geol 25(7):1083–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta SN, Arora YK, Mathur RK, Iqbaluddin BP, Prasad B, Sahai TN, Sharma SB (1995) Geological map of the Precambrians of the Aravalli region, southern Rajasthan and northwestern Gujarat, India (4 sheets, scale 1:250,000). Geological Survey of India, Western Region, Jaipur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrison TM, Duncan I, McDougall I (1985) Diffusion of 40Ar in biotite: temperature, pressure, and compositional effects. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:2461–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heron AM (1953) The geology of central Rajputana. Mem Geol Sur India 79:389Google Scholar
  35. Just J, Schulz B, de Wall H, Jourdan F, Pandit MK (2011) Monazite CHIME/EPMA dating of Erinpura granitoid deformation: Implications for Neoproterozoic tectono-thermal evolution of NW India. Gondwana Res 19:402–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaur P, Chaudhri N, Okrusch M, Koepke J (2006) Palaeoproterozoic A-type felsic magmatism in the Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, northwestern India: petrologic and tectonic implications. Mineral Petrol 87(1–2):81–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaur P, Zeh A, Chaudhri N, Gerdes A, Okrusch M (2013) Nature of magmatism and sedimentation at a Columbia active margin: Insights from combined U-Pb and Lu–Hf isotope data of detrital zircons from NW India. Gondwana Res 23:1040–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaur P, Zeh A, Chaudhri N (2019) Archean crustal evolution of the Aravalli Banded Gneissic Complex, NW India: constraints from zircon U-Pb ages, Lu-Hf isotope systematics, and whole-rock geochemistry of granitoids. Precambr Res 327:81–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan MS, Smith TE, Raza M, Huang J (2005) Geology, geochemistry and tectonic significance of mafic–ultramafic rocks of Mesoproterozic Phulad Ophiolite Suite of South Delhi Fold Belt, NW Indian shield. Gondwana Res 8:553–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kröner A, Stern RJ (2005) Pan-African orogeny. In: Selley RC, Cooks LRM, Plimer IR (eds) Encyclopedia of geology, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  41. Kruhl JH (1996) Prism-and basal-plane parallel subgrain boundaries in quartz: A microstructural geothermobarometer. J Metamorph Geol 14(5):581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lehmann J, Saalmann K, Naydenov KV, Milani L, Belyanin GA, Zwingmann H, Charlesworth G, Kinnaird JA (2016) Structural and geochronological constraints on the Pan-African tectonic evolution of the northern Damara Belt, Namibia. Tectonics 35:103–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li ZX, Bogdanova SV, Collins AS, Davidson A, De Waele B, Ernst RE, Fitzsimons ICW, Fuck RA, Gladkochub DP, Jacobs J, Karlstrom KE (2008) Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: a synthesis. Precambr Res 160:179–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahan KH, Goncalves P, Williams ML, Jercinovic MJ (2006) Dating metamorphic reactions and fluid flow: application to exhumation of high-P granulites in a crustal-scale shear zone, western Canadian Shield. J Metamorph Geol 24:193–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McMenamin MAS, McMenamin DLS (1990) The emergence of animals: the cambrian breakthrough, p 217Google Scholar
  46. Mehdi M, Kumar S, Pant NC (2015) Low grade metamorphism in the Lalsot-Bayana Sub-basin of the North Delhi Fold Belt and its tectonic implication. J Geol Soc India 85(4):397–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Meert JG (2003) A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics 362:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meert JG, Torsvik TH (2003) The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited. Tectonophysics 375:261–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meert JG, Lieberman BS (2008) The Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana and its relationship to the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation. Gondwana Res 14:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meert JG, Pandit MK, Kamenov GD (2013) Further geochronological and paleomagnetic constraints on Malani (and pre-Malani) magmatism in NW India. Tectonophysics 608:1254–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller RB, Paterson SR (1994) The transition from magmatic to high-temperature solid-state deformation: implications from the Mount Stuart batholith, Washington. J Struct Geol 16(6):853–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mukhopadhyay D (1989) Structural history of the central section of the Delhi orogenic belt. In: Proceedings of 28th international geological congress, Abstract 2, pp 479–480Google Scholar
  53. Mukhopadhyay D, Matin A (1991) Early major folds in the Delhi Supergroup around Hatankhera, Ajmer district, Rajasthan. Indian J Geol 63:67–74Google Scholar
  54. Naha K, Halyburton RV (1977a) Structural pattern and strain history of a superposed fold system in the Precambrian of Central Rajasthan, India. Structural pattern in the ‘main Raialo syncline’, Central Rajasthan. Precambr Res 4(1):39–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Naha K, Halyburton RV (1977b) Structural pattern and strain history of a superposed fold system in the Precambrian of Central Rajasthan, India. Strain history. Precambr Res 4(1):85–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Naha K, Mukhopadhyay DK, Mohanty R, Mitra SK, Biswal TK (1984) Significance of contrast in the early stages of the structural history of the Delhi and the Pre-Delhi rock groups in the Proterozoic of Rajasthan, western India. Tectonophysics 105:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Naha K, Mitra SK, Biswal TK (1987) Structural history of the rocks of the Delhi Group around Todgarh, Central Rajasthan. Indian J Geol 59:126–156Google Scholar
  58. Oriolo S, Oyhantçabal P, Wemmer K, Siegesmund S (2017) Contemporaneous assembly of Western Gondwana and final Rodinia break-up: implications for the supercontinent cycle. Geosci Front 8(6):1431–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pandey M, Pant NC, Santosh K (2013) Criteria to distinguish between regional and contact zone monazite. A case study from Proterozoic North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB), India. Episodes 36:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pandit MK, Carter LM, Ashwal LD, Tucker RD, Torsvik TH, Jamtveit B, Bhushan SK (2003) Age, petrogenesis and significance of 1 Ga granitoids and related rocks from the Sendra area, Aravalli Craton, NW India. J Asian Earth Sci 22(4):363–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pandit MK, de Wall H, Chauhan NK (2008) Paleosol at the Archean-Proterozoic contact in NW India revisited: evidence for oxidizing conditions during paleoweathering? J Earth Syst Sci 117:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pant NC, Kundu A, Joshi S (2008) Age of metamorphism of Delhi Supergroup rocks-electron microprobe ages from Mahendragarh district, Haryana. J Geol Soc India 72(3):365–372Google Scholar
  63. Passchier CW, Trouw RA (2005) Microtectonics. Springer Science and Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  64. Paterson SR, Fowler TK Jr, Schmidt KL, Yoshinobu AS, Yuan ES, Miller RB (1998) Interpreting magmatic fabric patterns in plutons. Lithos 44:53–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pryer LL (1993) Microstructures in feldspars from a major crustal thrust zone: the Grenville Front, Ontario, Canada. J Struct Geol 15(1):21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Purohit R, Papineau D, Kröner A, Sharma KK, Roy AB (2012) Carbon isotope geochemistry and geochronological constraints of the Neoproterozoic Sirohi Group from northwest India. Precambr Res 220:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pyle JM, Spear FS (2003) Four generations of accessory-phase growth in low pressure migmatites from SW New Hampshire. Am Miner 88:338–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ramsay JG (1967) Folding and fracturing of rocks. McGraw-Hill Companies, p 568Google Scholar
  69. Raza M, Siddiqui MZ (2012) Geochemistry and tectonic significance of mafic volcanic rocks of the Hindoli belt, southeastern Rajasthan: Implications for continent assembly. J Geol Soc India 80(4):553–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogers JJ, Santosh M (2002) Configuration of Columbia, a Mesoproterozoic supercontinent. Gondwana Res 5(1):5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosenberg CL, Stünitz H (2003) Deformation and recrystallization of plagioclase along a temperature gradient: an example from the Bergell tonalite. J Struct Geol 25(3):389–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roy AB, Sharma KK (1999) Geology of the region around Sirohi town, western Rajasthan–story of Neoproterozoic evolution of the Trans-Aravalli crust. Geological Evolution of Western Rajasthan, pp 19–33Google Scholar
  73. Roy AB (2001) Neoproterozoic crustal evolution of northwestern Indian shield: implications on break-up and assembly of supercontinents. Gondwana Res 4:289–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Roy AB, Jakhar SR (2002) Geology of Rajasthan (NW India) Precambrian to recent. Scientific Publishers (India) Jodhpur, p 387Google Scholar
  75. Roy AB, Dutta K, Rathore S (2016) Development of ductile shear zones during diapiric magmatism of nepheline syenite and exhumation of granulites—examples from central Rajasthan, India. Curr Sci 110(6):1094–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ruj T, Dasgupta N (2014) Tectonic imprints within a granite exposed near Srinagar, Rajasthan, India. J Earth Syst Sci 123(6):1361–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sarkar G, Bishui PK, Chattopadhyay B, Chowdhury S, Chowdhury I, Saha KC, Kumar A (1992) Geochronology of granites and felsic volcanic rocks of Delhi Fold Belt. Geol Surv India 125(2):21–23Google Scholar
  78. Sen A, Pande K, Sheth HC, Sharma KK, Sarkar S, Dayal AM, Mistry H (2013) An Ediacaran-Cambrian thermal imprint in Rajasthan, western India: evidence from 40 Ar–39 Ar geochronology of the Sindreth volcanics. J Earth Syst Sci 122(6):1477–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sengupta S (1988) Development of successive sets of structures in a process of continuous deformation: a case study from the Delhi metasediments near Kharwa, Ajmer District, Rajasthan, India. J Earth Sci 15:116–131Google Scholar
  80. Sengupta S, Ghosh SK (2004) Analysis of transpressional deformation from geometrical evolution of mesoscopic structures from Phulad shear zone, Rajasthan, India. J Struct Geol 26:1961–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sengupta S, Ghosh SK (2007) Origin of striping lineation and transposition of linear structures in shear zones. J Struct Geol 29(2):273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharma KK (2005) Malani magmatism: an extensional lithospheric tectonic origin. Geological Society of America Special Papers 388, pp 463–476Google Scholar
  83. Singh YK, De Waele B, Karmarkar S, Sarkar S, Biswal TK (2010) Tectonic setting of the Balaream–Kui–Surpagla–Kengora granulites of the South Delhi Terrane of the Aravalli Mobile Belt, NW India and its implication on correlation with the East African Orogen in the Gondwana assembly. Precambr Res 183:669–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sinha-Roy S (1988) Proterozoic Wilson cycles in Rajasthan. In: Roy AB (ed) Precambrian of the Aravalli Mountain, Rajasthan, India. Geological Society of India, Memoirs vol 7, pp 95–108Google Scholar
  85. Sinha-Roy S, Malhotra G, Mohanty M (1998) Geology of Rajasthan. Geological Society of India Memoire, p 278Google Scholar
  86. Sivasubramaniam R, Anand SV, Pandian MS, Balakrishnan S (2019) Geological, geochemical and Rb–Sr isotopic studies on tungsten mineralised Sewariya-Govindgarh granites of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, NW India. J Earth Syst Sci 128(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sommer H, Kröner A, Hauzenberger C, Muhongo S, Wingate MTD (2003) Metamorphic petrology and zircon geochronology of high-grade rocks from the central Mozambique Belt of Tanzania. crustal recycling of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic material during the Pan-African orogeny. J Metamorph Geol 21:915–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stern RJ (1994) Arc assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen. Implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:319–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stipp M, Stunitz H, Heilbronner R, Schmid SM (2002) The eastern Tonale fault zone: a 728 ‘natural laboratory’ for crystal plastic deformation of quartz over a temperature range from 250 to 700 °C. J Struct Geol 24:1861–1884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sugden TJ, Deb M, Windley BF (1990) The tectonic setting of mineralisation in the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India. In: Naqvi SM (ed) Precambrian continental crust and its economic resources. Elsevier, New York, pp 367–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Synchanthavong SP, Desai SD (1977) Protoplate tectonics controlling the Precambrian deformation and metallogenic epochs in NW India. Mineral Sci Eng 1:218–236Google Scholar
  92. Tobisch OT, Collerson KD, Bhattacharya T, Mukhopadhyay D (1994) Structural relationship and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of polymetamorphic granitic gneisses and granitic rocks from central Rajasthan, India-Implications for the evolution of the Aravalli craton. Precambr Res 65:319–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tiwari SK, Biswal TK (2019a) Dynamics, EPMA Th-U-total Pb monazite geochronology and tectonic implications of deformational fabric in the lower-middle crustal rocks, a case study of Ambaji granulite, NW India. Tectonics 38(7):2232–2254. Scholar
  94. Tiwari SK, Biswal TK (2019b) Paleostress and magma pressure measurement of granite veins in the Neoproterozoic Ambaji granulite, South Delhi terrane, Aravalli-Delhi mobile belt, NW India: implication towards extension driven exhumation of middle-lower crustal rocks. J Earth Syst Sci 128(6):150. Scholar
  95. Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Plate-tectonic regulation of animal diversity and sea level: a model. Nature 228:657–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Verma K, Greiling RO (1995) Tectonic evolution of the Aravalli orogen (NW India): an inverted proterozoic rift basin? Geol Rundsch 84:683–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vernon RH, Paterson SR, Geary EE (1989) Evidence for syntectonic intrusion of plutons in the Bear Mountains fault zone, California. Geology 17:723–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Volpe AM, Macdougall JD (1990) Geochemistry and isotopic characteristics of mafic (Phulad ophiolite) and related rocks in the Delhi Supergroup, Rajasthan, India: Implications for rifting in the Proterozoic. Precambr Res 48:167–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Williams ML, Jercinovic MJ (2002) Microprobe monazite geochronology; putting absolute time into microstructural analysis. J Struct Geol 24:1013–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhao G, Cawood PA, Wilde SA, Sun M (2002) Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent. Earth Sci Rev 59:125–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhash Singh
    • 1
  • Anjali Shukla
    • 1
  • B. H. Umasankar
    • 1
  • Tapas Kumar Biswal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of Technology BombayPowai, MumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations