Live (and Spend?) to Tell: An Investigation of Drivers of Consumer Upgrading in Extreme Sports

  • Francesco RaggiottoEmail author


This chapter develops a twin-branched model of the antecedents of upgrading the relationship with a brand for consumers participating in extreme sports. The model accounts not only for self-enhancement, perceived control, risk-taking, and self-event image congruence, but also for loyalty, satisfaction, and event image. It combines constructs that previous literature considered separately, never having related them to either upgrading or sports management. Based on 450 active participants in a major extreme sports event, the results offer a consumer-based perspective on the role of self-enhancement- and loyalty-related drivers in motiving active consumers of extreme sports to upgrade their relationship with the brand. Further insights are provided by a split model comparing consumers of different ages. An executive summary for managers and practitioners is provided at the end of this chapter.


Extreme sports Edgework theory Cognitive adaptation Consumer upgrading 


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of UdineUdineItaly

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