Advertisement

The Politics of Covert Activity

  • Mary ManjikianEmail author
Chapter
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter presents three narratives often deployed to “rescue the state” from charges that it itself is queer—through deflecting the charges to another actor. Narrative One posits that states sometimes engage in covert activity/queer foreign policy (on the down low), but that doesn’t make them queer; other states in the international community collude to pretend they don’t notice such queer behavior—adopting a “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy when it comes to state’s queer behavior. The second narrative suggests that the state’s policy appears queer only because the president, independently, behaved queerly and such behavior is therefore not indicative of the state’s identity. The third narrative suggests that while the IC sometimes oversteps its role and ends up making alternate foreign policy, this is due to an agency refusing to perform its expected role, rather than because the state itself is queer.

Keywords

Foreign policy Covert activity State Queer Diplomacy Intervention 

Bibliography

  1. Anderson, Elizabeth. 1998. The Security Dilemma and Covert Action: The Truman Years. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11 (4): 403–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balaghi, Shiva. 2013. Silenced Histories and Sanitized Autobiographies: The 1953 CIA Coup in Ran. Biography 36 (1): 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bevins, Vincent. 2017. What the United States Did in Indonesia. The Atlantic, October 20. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/10/the-indonesia-documents-and-the-us-agenda/543534/
  4. Bok, Sissela. 1978. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  5. Burton, Fred. 2009. Ghost: Confessions of a Counterterrorism Agent. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  6. Bush, George. 2010. Decision Points. New York: Broadway Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  7. Carson, Austin. 2016. Facing Off and Saving Face: Covert Intervention and Escalation Management in the Korean War. International Organization 70: 103–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carson, Austin, and Keren Yarhi-Milo. 2017. Covert Communication: The Intelligibility and Credibility of Signaling in Secret. Security Studies 26 (1): 124–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, Jimmy. 2018. Faith: A Journey for All. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  10. Cruz, Ted. 2015. The Obama Administration’s Unprecedented Lawlessness. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 38 (1): 42–69.Google Scholar
  11. Daugherty, William. 2006. Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  12. Devine, Jack, and Vernon Loeb. 2014. Good Hunting: An American Spymaster’s Story. New York: Sarah Crichton Books.Google Scholar
  13. Dickinson, Laura. 2012. Outsourcing Covert Activities. Journal of National Security Law and Policy 5: 521–537.Google Scholar
  14. Downes, Alexander, and Mary Lauren Lilley. 2010. Overt Peace, Covert War? Covert Intervention and the Democratic Peace. Security Studies 19: 266–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eng, David, Judith Halberstam, and Jose Esteban Munoz. 2005. What’s Queer About Queer Studies Now? Social Text 23 (3–4): 84–85.Google Scholar
  16. Ettinger, Aaron. 2014. The Mercenary Moniker: Condemnations, Contradictions and the Politics of Definition. Security Dialogue 46 (2): 174–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibson-Graham, J.K. 1996. Queer(y)ing Capitalist Organization. Organization 3 (4): 541–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hastedt, Glenn. 2010. The Doolittle Report. In Spies, Wiretaps and Secret Operations: An Encyclopedia of American espionage, ed. Glenn Hastedt. Goleta, California: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  19. Helms, Cynthia. 2013. An Intriguing Life: A Memoir of War, Washington, and Marriage to an American Spymaster. Lanham: The Rowman et Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Hess, Pamela. 2009. CIA Hired Mercenaries to Kill Terrorists, Report Says; Using Blackwater for Covert Program Raises Alarm About Accountability in Sensitive US Operations. Toronto Star, August: A18.Google Scholar
  21. Hicks, Bruce. 1996. Presidential Foreign Policy Prerogative After the Iran-Contra Affair: A Review Essay. Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (4): 962–977.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, Loch. 2008. Spies in the American Movies: Hollywood’s Take on Lese Majeste. Intelligence and National Security 23 (1): 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kakutani, Michiko. 2010. In Bush, Policy Intersects with Personality. New York Times, November 3.Google Scholar
  24. Koh, Harold. 1988. Why the President (Almost) Always Wins in Foreign Affairs: Lessons of the Iran-Contra Affair. Yale Law Journal 98: 1255–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krahmann, Elke. 2013. The United States, PMSCs and the State Monopoly on Violence: Leading the Way Towards Norm Change. Security Dialogue 44 (1): 53–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leander, Anna. 2010. The Paradoxical Impunity of Private Military Companies: Authority and the Limits to Legal Accountability. Security Dialogue 41 (5): 467–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lobel, Jules. 2012. Covert War and the Constitution. Journal of National Security Law and Policy 5: 393–407.Google Scholar
  28. Lumpkin, John. 2003. Mercenary Use Increases in CIA’s Covert Operations. South Florida Sun, November 28: 2A.Google Scholar
  29. Manjikian, Mary. 2016. Two Types of Intelligence Community Accountability: Turf Wars and Identity Narratives. Intelligence and National Security 31 (5): 686–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marshall, C.Kevin. 1997. Putting Privateers in Their Place: The Applicability of the Marque and Reprisal Clause to Undeclared Wars. The University of Chicago Law Review 64 (3): 953–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mearsheimer, John. 2012. Why Leaders Lie: The Truth About Lying in International Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Nutter, John. 2000. The CIA’s Black Ops: Covert Action, Foreign Policy, and Democracy. Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  33. Ott, Marvin. 2003. Partisanship and the Decline of Intelligence Oversight. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16 (1): 29–44.Google Scholar
  34. Percy, Sarah. 2007. Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Poznansky, Michael. 2015. Stasis or Decay? Reconciling Covert War and the Democratic Peace. International Studies Quarterly 59: 815–826.Google Scholar
  36. Prados, John. 1986. Presidents’ Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II. New York: William Morrow and Company.Google Scholar
  37. Rascoff, Samuel. 2016. The President as Intelligence Overseer. In Global Intelligence Oversight, ed. Zachary Goldman and Samuel Rascoff, 235–251. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Renshon, Stanley A. 2005. President Clinton’s Memoirs: Caveat Emptor. Presidential Studies Quarterly 35 (3): 608–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rhodes, Ben. 2018. The World as It Is: A memoir of the Obama White House. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  40. Rosenkranz, Keith. 2018. The US Also Has a History of Meddling in Foreign Elections. Star-Telegram, May 21. https://www.star-telegram.com/opinion/opn-columns-blogs/other-voices/article211617394.html. Accessed January 15, 2019.
  41. Sarkese, Meredith. n.d. The COW Typology of War: Defining and Categorizing Wars. Unpublished Manuscript. Available at http://cow.la.psu.edu/COW2%20Data/WarData_NEW/COW%20Website%20-%20Typology%20of%20war.pdf. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  42. Schlanger, Margo. 2015. Intelligence Legalism and the National Security Agency’s Civil Liberties Gap. Harvard National Security Journal 6: 112–2015.Google Scholar
  43. Small, Melvin, and David J. Singer. 1976. The War Proneness of Democratic Regimes, 1816–1965. Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 1: 50–69.Google Scholar
  44. Thomson, Janice. 1994. Mercenaries, Pirates and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Treverton, Gregory. 1987. Covert Action: From ‘Covert’ to Overt. Daedalus 116 (2): 95–123.Google Scholar
  46. Weiner, Tim. 2008. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regent UniversityVirginia BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations