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Although most patients will not present to their providers with questions concerning the specifics of reproductive physiology, the care and management of pregnant patients begin with an understanding of the physiological environment in which pregnancy occurs (or in some instances, does not occur). Many women’s health providers will face questions concerning menstrual function prior to caring for a patient’s obstetrical needs. Conversely, routine gynecological care may provide an opportunity to begin discussions of pregnancy planning and preconception counseling. For many women, a “routine” gynecological examination is the primary point of contact with the health-care system early in life. For this reason, all providers who care for women should have some understanding of normal reproductive physiological function. A brief overview of menstruation, fertility, and pregnancy follows.